For most students, the habits developed during typing practice will eventually integrate with the finger used while concentrating on ideation and content. Once a student learns word-processing skills, she will have the option of progressing to use of voice-activated software, such as Dragon NaturallySpeaking. Such software allows the student to dictate into a microphone without the need for direct typing on the keyboard. However, this is a higher level skill which is much more efficient once the student knows and understands basic word processing and writing skills.
Clear enunciation, lack of slurring words, and use a precise preplanning and organization are critical for success with voice-activated programs. This is particularly laborious for older students in high school or college, who have much greater note taking demands. While a laptop computer can be efficient, it can be cumbersome to carry around. Also, it is expensive to fix or replace a vandalized, dropped, or otherwise broken computer. A successful alternative that has become popular with some older students is the use of a personal digital assistant PDA such as the PalmPilot series or the Visor Handspring series.
These units are quite small palm size and easy to transport in a backpack. A nearly standard size keyboard can be attached which greatly facilitates typing and, hence, note- taking. This is especially useful for recording homework assignments and "to do" lists. For note-taking during a lecture, many students still require the assistance of a note-taker, even if the complete notes are only used as a backup. Many students who struggle with writing also have difficulties with spelling.
Even if they are able to spell correctly on a weekly spelling test, when they're thinking of content it may be very difficult to also think of the correct spelling of the words they want. Some students then simplify their word usage. Other students just include the incorrectly spelled word. When such students use a staging approach, they can first focus on pre-organization and then writing or typing a draft. A next step would be to go back and work on fixing misspelled words.
Sometimes the spell checker on a computer does not help the student because the misspelled word is not close enough to correct. In such situations, the student should be taught to develop strong phonetic analysis skills so that she can learn to spell words phonetically, the way they sound. Then the student will be able to utilize technology such as one of the Franklin Electronic Resources. In our office, the Language Master has been found to be very appropriate because of its large font size and speech clarity.
A common complaint of students who struggle to write is that their hand gets tired when writing. This can be due to a variety of factors. Some of the most common factors are inappropriate grip, a very tight pencil grip, or inefficient writing posture. There are many efficient grippers that can be used with the pencil or pen to enhance the efficiency of the students grasp on the pencil.
One example, the large Pencil Grip , is ergonomically developed to work with the natural physiology of the hand to gently place fingers in the proper position for gripping. Students can be helped to decrease hand fatigue by performing warm-up activities before writing in the middle of the task.
Such activities help the student manipulate and relax muscles in the writing hand. For older students who need to take a large number of notes during a class, dividing their paper in half and writing on only one half the time helps reduce the drag of the writing instrument across the paper.
This too will reduce writing fatigue. One of the best compensations for a student who struggles with writing is to have a teacher that understands. For some students it is not possible to be neat while also focusing on content. Some students cannot focus on both neatness and use of writing mechanics at the same time.
Understanding Dysgraphia Richards, , we learn how elementary school student Eli compensated for the frustration caused by his struggles with trying to be neat while also thinking:.
Eli figured it was easier to write just a few sentences. That didn't hurt his hand so much either. However, recent surveys of elementary teachers indicate that students spend little time writing during the school day. Students need dedicated instructional time to learn the skills and strategies necessary to become effective writers, as well as time to practice what they learn.
Time for writing practice can help students gain confidence in their writing abilities. As teachers observe the way students write, they can identify difficulties and assist students with learning and applying the writing process.
The panel recommends a minimum of one hour a day devoted to writing for students, beginning in 1st grade For students in kindergarten, at least 30 minutes each day should be devoted to writing and developing writing skills.
The hour should include at least 30 minutes dedicated to teaching a variety of writing strategies, techniques, and skills appropriate to students' levels, as detailed in Recommendations 2, 3, and 4 of this guide.
The remaining 30 minutes should be spent on writing practice, where students apply the skills they learned from writing-skills instruction. Time for writing practice can occur in the context of other content-area instruction.
In science, for example, lab reports require detailed procedural writing and clear descriptions of observations. Students also can write For students in kindergarten, at least 30 minutes each day should be devoted to writing and developing writing skills. When teachers integrate writing tasks with other content-area lessons, students may think more critically about the content-area material. Writing well involves more than simply documenting ideas as they come to mind.
It is a process that requires that the writer think carefully about the purpose for writing, plan what to say, plan how to say it, and understand what the reader needs to know.
Instruction should include the components of the writing process: An additional component, publishing, may be included to develop and share a final product. Students need to acquire specific strategies for each component of the writing process.
Students should learn basic strategies, such as POW Pick ideas, Organize their notes, Write and say more , in 1st or 2nd grade. More complicated strategies, such as peer revising, should be introduced in 2nd grade or later.
Many strategies can be used to assist students with more than one component of the writing process. For example, as students plan to write a persuasive essay, they may set goals for their writing, such as providing three or more reasons for their beliefs.
Students should then devise a plan for periodically assessing their progress toward meeting these goals as they write.
As students evaluate their draft text, they may reread their paper to determine whether they have met the goals they articulated during planning.
If not, students may revise their writing to better meet their goals. Writing strategies should be taught explicitly and directly through a gradual release of responsibility from teacher to student. Teachers should ensure that students have the background knowledge and skills they need to understand and use a writing strategy. Then, teachers should describe the strategy and model its use. Teachers also should articulate the purpose of the strategy, clearly stating why students might choose to use it as a way of improving their writing.
Teachers then should guide students to collaborate in small groups to practice applying the strategy. Once students demonstrate an understanding of the strategy, the teacher should encourage students to practice applying it as they write independently. Teachers should make sure they do not release responsibility to students too early. When students initially learn to use writing strategies, teachers frequently should discuss when and how to use the strategies throughout the writing process, as well as why the strategies are helpful.
Once students learn to use a variety of strategies independently, through the gradual release process, teachers should help them understand how to select appropriate strategies and use them across a range of writing tasks.
To help students select the appropriate writing strategy, teachers might consider posting strategies on a wall chart in the classroom. One column of the chart might include a list of all the strategies, and another column might provide a list of situations in which these strategies could be used.
Once students are able to use a strategy effectively and independently, they can identify and add situations to the chart. Students also can identify opportunities to apply strategies in different content areas.
Writing requires flexibility and change. Once students have acquired a set of strategies to carry out the components of the writing process, they need to be purposeful in selecting strategies that help them meet their writing goals. They also need to learn to apply these strategies in a flexible manner, moving back and forth between different components of the writing process as they develop text and think critically about their writing goals.
For example, plans and already written text may need to be revised and edited numerous times to communicate more effectively, and writing must be polished to make it suitable for publication. Writing for different purposes often means writing for different audiences. To help students understand the role of audience in writing, it is important to design writing activities that naturally lend themselves to different audiences.
Otherwise, students may view writing in school as writing only for their teacher. When discussing writing purposes, teachers and students can generate a list of potential audiences for a given writing assignment. Students then can choose the audience that best fits their writing topic. Exemplary texts can illustrate a number of features, including text structure; use of graphs, charts, and pictures; effective word choice; and varied sentence structure.
Students also must learn to use techniques that are specific to a purpose of writing. When developing a persuasive essay, for example, students can use the TREE Topic sentence, Reasons—three or more, Ending, Examine technique, whereby they make a plan for their paper that includes what they believe, reasons to support their beliefs, examples for each reason, and an ending.
When basic writing skills become relatively effortless for students, they can focus less on these basic writing skills and more on developing and communicating their ideas. However, younger writers must typically devote considerable attention to acquiring and polishing these skills before they become proficient.
Spelling skills can affect the words students choose because they may be less likely to use words they cannot spell. Students also need to be able to generate strong, interesting sentences that vary in length and complexity in order to convey their intended meaning and engage readers. When a student's writing contains spelling mistakes and poor handwriting, it can be difficult for the reader to understand what the student is trying to convey.
Word processing programs can make many aspects of the writing process easier for students, including assisting students with spelling and handwriting difficulties to write more fluently. If you find that you have many struggling students, then this is the best option for the whole group.
For example, if students are doing small group work, instead of giving them a list of 10 questions to answer together all at once, have them answer one question at a time, and after each question, have them regroup as a whole group before allowing them to go onto the next question.
Struggling students need to practice thinking on their own. Take the time to ask questions that make students have to think about their answer. Teach them how to make inferences and not just blurt out any answer that comes to mind. The more they take the time to think about their answers, the easier time they will have when trying to come up with solutions to the answer.
Students who are having a hard time often get the urge to raise their hands and ask for help for every single question. To stop this from happening, you need to come up with a strategy that will allow students to move on when they get stuck on a question.
Some teachers find that sticky notes or red and green flip cards are an effective technique. Other teachers find that limiting the number of times a student is allowed to ask a question for each lesson works well too. Effective teachers encourage students and motivate them to do well in school. They take the time to praise them and tell them that they can do anything when they put their mind to it.
Be that teacher, the teacher that tells them they can do it! Do you have any strategies that work well with your struggling students? If so, please share your ideas in the comment section below, we would love to hear what works for you and your students. Janelle Cox is an education writer who uses her experience and knowledge to provide creative and original writing in the field of education.
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The national, regional, provincial, city and rogongon for help writing struggling students agricultural high school for boys. In may the times educational supplement reported that a .
Strangely, and surprisingly, the student accepted the help. Happily, that was the last time this student would not begin. So part of the solution in teaching struggling, reluctant writers to write is you need to motivate them to begin. Students cannot give up before they even begin. When faced with esoteric writing instruction, these.
For struggling writers, it often takes a lot of effort from both the teacher and the student to start writing with ease and even to love writing. It is doable with a strong teacher-student relationship and a consistent understanding and communication between students and their peers. Teaching writing to struggling students involve lots of feedback and revision chances. Teaching writing to struggling students involve lots of feedback and revision chances. I would call member of the various groups up to help analyze the prompt and to serve as scribes so that I could walk around and monitor the student’s notes and.
cance) to help students develop plans for writing. • Emphasize writing pieces, not paragraphs (e.g., letter, editorial, book review, advice column). • Find real audiences and mentors from outside the classroom to provide concrete feedback to. I created this easy to use writing method when I was teaching bright, hard working students in a Remedial Language Arts program. Whatever the age of the child I will start with writing very good sentences, then paragraphs and then multiple paragraphs.