A research proposal is a concise and information-heavy summary of the research you intend to conduct. It describes the key questions that you are going to address, outlines the primary area of your study and describes the current state of knowledge on the topic. A proposal is the most important part of the application process when you are applying to graduate level programs.
It is supposed to demonstrate your ability to conduct deep and independent research, as well as communicate complex ideas and extract the most important information from the mass of data. Requirements vary from one education establishment to another, but the general structure of a proposal looks as following:. Note that to write a worthy proposal, you should always specify the requirements in advance — many institutions refuse to accept proposals that do not follow the required format.
The process of writing research proposal is not different from any other scholarly paper, of course depending on its level. Yet, since PhD proposals are intended primarily for academic circles, the writer should make emphasis on the scientific rather than practical value.
In other words, PhD level works have to contribute to the body of theoretical knowledge before everything else. Students often make the mistake of believing that PhD proposals are somehow different from the rest. While they do have some peculiarities, the general requirements are the same.
The purpose of a qualitative proposal is to define and interpret a certain human phenomena free of any biases and assumptions. This kind of proposal does not differ from other proposals in format — only in the nature and methods of the intended research.
Whatever the proposal you need to write, we will be happy to assist you. One of the most important aspects of science is ensuring that you get all the parts of the written research paper in the right order. You may have finished the best research project on earth but, if you do not write an interesting and well laid out paper, then nobody is going to take your findings seriously. The main thing to remember with any research paper is that it is based on an hourglass structure.
It begins with general information and undertaking a literature review , and becomes more specific as you nail down a research problem and hypothesis. Finally, it again becomes more general as you try to apply your findings to the world at general. Whilst there are a few differences between the various disciplines, with some fields placing more emphasis on certain parts than others, there is a basic underlying structure.
These steps are the building blocks of constructing a good research paper. This section outline how to lay out the parts of a research paper, including the various experimental methods and designs.
The principles for literature review and essays of all types follow the same basic principles. For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve. For others, the introduction is the last thing written, acting as a quick summary of the paper.
As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper, both approaches are acceptable and it is a matter of preference.
A good introduction generally consists of three distinct parts:. Ideally, you should try to give each section its own paragraph, but this will vary given the overall length of the paper. Look at the benefits to be gained by the research or why the problem has not been solved yet.
Perhaps nobody has thought about it, or maybe previous research threw up some interesting leads that the previous researchers did not follow up. Another researcher may have uncovered some interesting trends, but did not manage to reach the significance level , due to experimental error or small sample sizes.
The research problem does not have to be a statement, but must at least imply what you are trying to find. Many writers prefer to place the thesis statement or hypothesis here, which is perfectly acceptable, but most include it in the last sentences of the introduction, to give the reader a fuller picture.
The idea is that somebody will be able to gain an overall view of the paper without needing to read the whole thing. Literature reviews are time-consuming enough, so give the reader a concise idea of your intention before they commit to wading through pages of background.
In this section, you look to give a context to the research, including any relevant information learned during your literature review. You are also trying to explain why you chose this area of research, attempting to highlight why it is necessary. The second part should state the purpose of the experiment and should include the research problem. The third part should give the reader a quick summary of the form that the parts of the research paper is going to take and should include a condensed version of the discussion.
Cite references when needed. If you want to use this approach, you must keep this approach for all the points in the proposal. This can be included in the introduction, or it can have its own section.
State the thesis and clarify the hypothesis or theory that you are going to attempt to prove with the thesis. This is going to be the focus of your work and give the reader a chance to understand the scope of your overall thesis paper. Describe everything you did to reach your conclusion or hypothesis. This can include the approach you took the materials you used and the procedures you followed.
You should also include calculations, equipment, graphs and other information, as well as any limitations you had. Cite references when required. Here, you will present the results that you have come up and draw up conclusions relating to the research that you have done. This is a true reporting of what you found while testing your hypothesis if it is a technical thesis paper , including both positive and negative findings. Sometimes the results and discussion will be two separate sections.
The discussion relies on your own observations and interpretations of the results. When discussing the results, there needs to be a clear division between what was found and how you interpret those findings. This section in your proposal may be sparse if you have not yet performed the study or experiment, or have not completed your research, but it is still a good idea to detail some of your preliminary findings here.
Use the table to list the stages of the project, include any deadlines you have provided for yourself, and discuss any challenges you may face. Could there be any new knowledge that comes up? If so, try to think of what this knowledge will be and include it here. Are there any other implications or problems others may find when doing their own research? You will have many source for your thesis proposal; your thesis proposal is incomplete and will be rejected without a list of references and citations throughout the work.
Anything that is not your own must be cited, which includes text, data, and ideas. When citing an idea or data, back it up with your own data. Footnotes are not allowed in a thesis proposal.
You must use a superscript number one, two, etc.
Dec 19, · The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is important to remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of tojikon.mls:
In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation.
Research proposal structure. There are three key messages to communicate when writing a research proposal: what you are doing; why it is important; that you are competent to do it; You may be asked to write a proposal that includes all of these sections. Particularly at undergraduate level, your proposal may focus on three or four of the following sections. Structure for Research Designs, Theses, and Papers The elements or sections of a research design, thesis, and paper are general categories. Modify them to fit your specific situation.
A research proposal outline can be of a great use to see how you need to process the literature in order to make the whole structure clear and simple. Here you need to show that there are researches, based on your field of interest but they lack the data you are going to perform;. Despite appearing at the beginning of your paper, plan to write your research proposal last. This is a brief summary of your entire paper. In a to word paragraph, state your .