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Biography of Isaac Newton

Influence of the scientific revolution

❶Archived from the original PDF on 7 October Such was his fury that he refused either to publish his Opticks or to accept the presidency of the Royal Society until Hooke was dead.

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Formative influences


Newton was elected to a fellowship in Trinity College in , after the university reopened. The professorship exempted Newton from the necessity of tutoring but imposed the duty of delivering an annual course of lectures. Descartes had also made light central to the mechanical philosophy of nature; the reality of light, he argued, consists of motion transmitted through a material medium. Newton fully accepted the mechanical nature of light, although he chose the atomistic alternative and held that light consists of material corpuscles in motion.

The corpuscular conception of light was always a speculative theory on the periphery of his optics, however. An ancient theory extending back at least to Aristotle held that a certain class of colour phenomena, such as the rainbow , arises from the modification of light, which appears white in its pristine form. Descartes had generalized this theory for all colours and translated it into mechanical imagery. Through a series of experiments performed in and , in which the spectrum of a narrow beam was projected onto the wall of a darkened chamber, Newton denied the concept of modification and replaced it with that of analysis.

Basically, he denied that light is simple and homogeneous—stating instead that it is complex and heterogeneous and that the phenomena of colours arise from the analysis of the heterogeneous mixture into its simple components. He held that individual rays that is, particles of given size excite sensations of individual colours when they strike the retina of the eye.

He also concluded that rays refract at distinct angles—hence, the prismatic spectrum, a beam of heterogeneous rays, i. Because he believed that chromatic aberration could never be eliminated from lenses, Newton turned to reflecting telescopes ; he constructed the first ever built. The heterogeneity of light has been the foundation of physical optics since his time. There is no evidence that the theory of colours, fully described by Newton in his inaugural lectures at Cambridge, made any impression, just as there is no evidence that aspects of his mathematics and the content of the Principia , also pronounced from the podium, made any impression.

Rather, the theory of colours, like his later work, was transmitted to the world through the Royal Society of London, which had been organized in When Newton was appointed Lucasian professor, his name was probably unknown in the Royal Society; in , however, they heard of his reflecting telescope and asked to see it.

Pleased by their enthusiastic reception of the telescope and by his election to the society, Newton volunteered a paper on light and colours early in On the whole, the paper was also well received, although a few questions and some dissent were heard.

One can understand how the critique would have annoyed a normal man. The flaming rage it provoked, with the desire publicly to humiliate Hooke, however, bespoke the abnormal. Newton was unable rationally to confront criticism. Less than a year after submitting the paper, he was so unsettled by the give and take of honest discussion that he began to cut his ties, and he withdrew into virtual isolation. In , during a visit to London, Newton thought he heard Hooke accept his theory of colours.

He was emboldened to bring forth a second paper, an examination of the colour phenomena in thin films , which was identical to most of Book Two as it later appeared in the Opticks. The purpose of the paper was to explain the colours of solid bodies by showing how light can be analyzed into its components by reflection as well as refraction.

His explanation of the colours of bodies has not survived, but the paper was significant in demonstrating for the first time the existence of periodic optical phenomena. In Newton combined a revision of his optical lectures with the paper of and a small amount of additional material in his Opticks.

A second piece which Newton had sent with the paper of provoked new controversy. Hooke apparently claimed that Newton had stolen its content from him, and Newton boiled over again. The issue was quickly controlled, however, by an exchange of formal, excessively polite letters that fail to conceal the complete lack of warmth between the men. Although their objections were shallow, their contention that his experiments were mistaken lashed him into a fury.

The correspondence dragged on until , when a final shriek of rage from Newton, apparently accompanied by a complete nervous breakdown, was followed by silence. The death of his mother the following year completed his isolation.

For six years he withdrew from intellectual commerce except when others initiated a correspondence, which he always broke off as quickly as possible. During his time of isolation, Newton was greatly influenced by the Hermetic tradition with which he had been familiar since his undergraduate days.

Newton, always somewhat interested in alchemy , now immersed himself in it, copying by hand treatise after treatise and collating them to interpret their arcane imagery. Under the influence of the Hermetic tradition, his conception of nature underwent a decisive change. Until that time, Newton had been a mechanical philosopher in the standard 17th-century style, explaining natural phenomena by the motions of particles of matter. Thus, he held that the physical reality of light is a stream of tiny corpuscles diverted from its course by the presence of denser or rarer media.

He felt that the apparent attraction of tiny bits of paper to a piece of glass that has been rubbed with cloth results from an ethereal effluvium that streams out of the glass and carries the bits of paper back with it. This mechanical philosophy denied the possibility of action at a distance; as with static electricity , it explained apparent attractions away by means of invisible ethereal mechanisms. About , Newton abandoned the ether and its invisible mechanisms and began to ascribe the puzzling phenomena—chemical affinities , the generation of heat in chemical reactions , surface tension in fluids, capillary action , the cohesion of bodies, and the like—to attractions and repulsions between particles of matter.

More than 35 years later, in the second English edition of the Opticks , Newton accepted an ether again, although it was an ether that embodied the concept of action at a distance by positing a repulsion between its particles. Newton, however, regarded them as a modification of the mechanical philosophy that rendered it subject to exact mathematical treatment.

As he conceived of them, attractions were quantitatively defined, and they offered a bridge to unite the two basic themes of 17th-century science—the mechanical tradition, which had dealt primarily with verbal mechanical imagery, and the Pythagorean tradition, which insisted on the mathematical nature of reality.

Newton originally applied the idea of attractions and repulsions solely to the range of terrestrial phenomena mentioned in the preceding paragraph. But late in , not long after he had embraced the concept, another application was suggested in a letter from Hooke, who was seeking to renew correspondence. Hooke mentioned his analysis of planetary motion—in effect, the continuous diversion of a rectilinear motion by a central attraction.

Newton bluntly refused to correspond but, nevertheless, went on to mention an experiment to demonstrate the rotation of Earth: He sketched the path of fall as part of a spiral ending at the centre of Earth. He was mistaken in the charge.

Moreover, unknown to him, Newton had so derived the relation more than 10 years earlier. Nevertheless, Newton later confessed that the correspondence with Hooke led him to demonstrate that an elliptical orbit entails an inverse square attraction to one focus—one of the two crucial propositions on which the law of universal gravitation would ultimately rest.

In and , Newton dealt only with orbital dynamics; he had not yet arrived at the concept of universal gravitation. Nearly five years later, in August , Newton was visited by the British astronomer Edmond Halley , who was also troubled by the problem of orbital dynamics.

Already Newton was at work improving and expanding it. Significantly, De Motu did not state the law of universal gravitation. For that matter, even though it was a treatise on planetary dynamics , it did not contain any of the three Newtonian laws of motion. Only when revising De Motu did Newton embrace the principle of inertia the first law and arrive at the second law of motion. The second law, the force law , proved to be a precise quantitative statement of the action of the forces between bodies that had become the central members of his system of nature.

By quantifying the concept of force, the second law completed the exact quantitative mechanics that has been the paradigm of natural science ever since. The quantitative mechanics of the Principia is not to be confused with the mechanical philosophy. The latter was a philosophy of nature that attempted to explain natural phenomena by means of imagined mechanisms among invisible particles of matter.

The mechanics of the Principia was an exact quantitative description of the motions of visible bodies. Newton was able to show that a similar relation holds between Earth and its Moon. The distance of the Moon is approximately 60 times the radius of Earth.

Newton compared the distance by which the Moon, in its orbit of known size, is diverted from a tangential path in one second with the distance that a body at the surface of Earth falls from rest in one second. The law of universal gravitation , which he also confirmed from such further phenomena as the tides and the orbits of comets , states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres.

When the Royal Society received the completed manuscript of Book I in , Hooke raised the cry of plagiarism , a charge that cannot be sustained in any meaningful sense. Hooke would have been satisfied with a generous acknowledgment; it would have been a graceful gesture to a sick man already well into his decline, and it would have cost Newton nothing.

Newton, instead, went through his manuscript and eliminated nearly every reference to Hooke. Such was his fury that he refused either to publish his Opticks or to accept the presidency of the Royal Society until Hooke was dead. The Principia immediately raised Newton to international prominence. In their continuing loyalty to the mechanical ideal, Continental scientists rejected the idea of action at a distance for a generation, but even in their rejection they could not withhold their admiration for the technical expertise revealed by the work.

Young British scientists spontaneously recognized him as their model. Within a generation the limited number of salaried positions for scientists in England , such as the chairs at Oxford , Cambridge, and Gresham College, were monopolized by the young Newtonians of the next generation.

Newton, whose only close contacts with women were his unfulfilled relationship with his mother, who had seemed to abandon him, and his later guardianship of a niece, found satisfaction in the role of patron to the circle of young scientists. As a consequence, he was elected to represent the university in the convention that arranged the revolutionary settlement. In this capacity, he made the acquaintance of a broader group, including the philosopher John Locke.

Newton tasted the excitement of London life in the aftermath of the Principia. The great bulk of his creative work had been completed. Seek a place he did, especially through the agency of his friend, the rising politician Charles Montague, later Lord Halifax. Finally, in , he was appointed warden of the mint.

Although he did not resign his Cambridge appointments until , he moved to London and henceforth centred his life there. Fatio was taken seriously ill; then family and financial problems threatened to call him home to Switzerland.

In he suggested that Fatio move to Cambridge, where Newton would support him, but nothing came of the proposal. Four months later, without prior notice, Samuel Pepys and John Locke, both personal friends of Newton, received wild, accusatory letters. Pepys was informed that Newton would see him no more; Locke was charged with trying to entangle him with women.

The crisis passed, and Newton recovered his stability. Only briefly did he ever return to sustained scientific work, however, and the move to London was the effective conclusion of his creative activity. Added to his personal estate, the income left him a rich man at his death.

The position, regarded as a sinecure, was treated otherwise by Newton. During the great recoinage, there was need for him to be actively in command; even afterward, however, he chose to exercise himself in the office. Above all, he was interested in counterfeiting. He became the terror of London counterfeiters, sending a goodly number to the gallows and finding in them a socially acceptable target on which to vent the rage that continued to well up within him.

Newton found time now to explore other interests, such as religion and theology. In the early s he had sent Locke a copy of a manuscript attempting to prove that Trinitarian passages in the Bible were latter-day corruptions of the original text. When Locke made moves to publish it, Newton withdrew in fear that his anti-Trinitarian views would become known. In his later years, he devoted much time to the interpretation of the prophecies of Daniel and St.

John , and to a closely related study of ancient chronology. Both works were published after his death. In , Newton returned to his work on celestial mechanics by considering gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in —80 with Hooke, who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum , a tract written on about nine sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December The Principia was published on 5 July with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.

In this work, Newton stated the three universal laws of motion. Together, these laws describe the relationship between any object, the forces acting upon it and the resulting motion, laying the foundation for classical mechanics. They contributed to many advances during the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not improved upon for more than years.

Many of these advancements continue to be the underpinnings of non-relativistic technologies in the modern world. He used the Latin word gravitas weight for the effect that would become known as gravity , and defined the law of universal gravitation.

In the same work, Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis using 'first and last ratios', gave the first analytical determination based on Boyle's law of the speed of sound in air, inferred the oblateness of Earth's spheroidal figure, accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness, initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon , provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets, and much more.

Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the Solar System—developed in a somewhat modern way, because already in the mids he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the Solar System.

Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing " occult agencies" into science. Here Newton used what became his famous expression "hypotheses non-fingo" [60].

With the Principia , Newton became internationally recognised. Newton found 72 of the 78 "species" of cubic curves and categorized them into four types. Newton also claimed that the four types could be obtained by plane projection from one of them, and this was proved in , four years after his death.

In the s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal and symbolic interpretation of the Bible. A manuscript Newton sent to John Locke in which he disputed the fidelity of 1 John 5: Even though a number of authors have claimed that the work may have indicated that Newton disputed the Trinity , others assure that Newton did question the passage but never denied the Trinity as such.

His biographer, scientist Sir David Brewster , who compiled his manuscripts for over 20 years, wrote about the controversy in a well-known book Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton , where he explains that Newton questioned the veracity of those passages, but he never denied the doctrine of the Trinity as such.

Brewster states that Newton was never known as an Arian during his lifetime, it was William Whiston an Arian who first argued that "Sir Isaac Newton was so hearty for the Baptists, as well as for the Eusebians or Arians, that he sometimes suspected these two were the two witnesses in the Revelations," while others like Hopton Haynes a Mint employee and Humanitarian , "mentioned to Richard Baron , that Newton held the same doctrine as himself".

John —were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy see above. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England for Cambridge University in —90 and —2, but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in , a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax , then Chancellor of the Exchequer.

He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in , a position Newton held for the last 30 years of his life. As Warden, and afterwards Master, of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during the Great Recoinage of were counterfeit.

Counterfeiting was high treason , punishable by the felon being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting even the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved equal to the task. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.

As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December , forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.

It is a matter of debate as whether he intended to do this or not. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May , rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. Newton was one of many people who lost heavily when the South Sea Company collapsed.

Towards the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park , near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life. Although it was claimed that he was once engaged, [97] Newton never married. The French writer and philosopher Voltaire , who was in London at the time of Newton's funeral, said that he "was never sensible to any passion, was not subject to the common frailties of mankind, nor had any commerce with women—a circumstance which was assured me by the physician and surgeon who attended him in his last moments".

Newton had a close friendship with the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier , whom he met in London around [62] —some of their correspondence has survived. The mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish.

Newton was relatively modest about his achievements, writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. Two writers think that the above quotation, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke said to have been short and hunchbacked , rather than—or in addition to—a statement of modesty. I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution. Newton's monument can be seen in Westminster Abbey , at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack — in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design.

Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.

Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced.

Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St.

Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey , ii, —4. Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System. A large bronze statue, Newton, after William Blake , by Eduardo Paolozzi , dated and inspired by Blake 's etching , dominates the piazza of the British Library in London. Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity; [] in recent times he has been described as a heretic.

By he had started to record his theological researches in notebooks which he showed to no one and which have only recently been examined. They demonstrate an extensive knowledge of early church writings and show that in the conflict between Athanasius and Arius which defined the Creed , he took the side of Arius, the loser, who rejected the conventional view of the Trinity.

Newton "recognized Christ as a divine mediator between God and man, who was subordinate to the Father who created him. Newton tried unsuccessfully to obtain one of the two fellowships that exempted the holder from the ordination requirement. At the last moment in he received a dispensation from the government that excused him and all future holders of the Lucasian chair.

In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry , to him the fundamental sin. Snobelen says, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs.

In a minority view, T. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view on the Trinity. Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock.

He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done. Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason.

In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".

But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

A century later, Pierre-Simon Laplace 's work " Celestial Mechanics " had a natural explanation for why the planet orbits do not require periodic divine intervention. Newton and Robert Boyle 's approach to the mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts , and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.

The attacks made against pre- Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity , were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them. In a manuscript he wrote in never intended to be published he mentions the date of , but it is not given as a date for the end of days.

It has been falsely reported as a prediction. He was against date setting for the end of days, concerned that this would put Christianity into disrepute.

And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of [long-]lived kingdoms the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Christ comes as a thief in the night, and it is not for us to know the times and seasons which God hath put into his own breast.

He later revised this date to Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone. That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find. Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton's papers, about one million deal with alchemy. Many of Newton's writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations.

In , after spending sixteen years cataloging Newton's papers, Cambridge University kept a small number and returned the rest to the Earl of Portsmouth. In , a descendant offered the papers for sale at Sotheby's. Keynes went on to reassemble an estimated half of Newton's collection of papers on alchemy before donating his collection to Cambridge University in All of Newton's known writings on alchemy are currently being put online in a project undertaken by Indiana University: Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus.

Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues. We refer to Newton's involvement in the discipline of alchemy, or as it was often called in seventeenth-century England, "chymistry.

In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded. It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.

John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire.

Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity which brought an apple from a tree to the ground was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.

In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry , "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.

Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement.

He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation". Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. The staff of the now National Trust -owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton.

A descendant of the original tree [] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale [] can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent , a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Influential British physicist and mathematician. This article is about the scientist. For the agriculturalist, see Isaac Newton agriculturalist.

Portrait of Newton by Godfrey Kneller. Isaac Barrow [3] Benjamin Pulleyn [4] [5]. Roger Cotes William Whiston. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Early life of Isaac Newton. Writing of Principia Mathematica. Later life of Isaac Newton.

Isaac Newton in popular culture. Religious views of Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton's occult studies and eschatology. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press , Brackenridge, J. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. University of California Press Whiteside, D. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed.

Turnbull and others, 7 vols —77 Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. Harvard University Press Newton, I. Cambridge University Press Newton, I. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' Newton series Gauss—Newton algorithm Calculus History of calculus Glossary of calculus History of the telescope Leibniz—Newton calculus controversy List of multiple discoveries: At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: By the time of his death, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days: His death occurred on 20 March according to the Old Style calendar, but the year is usually adjusted to A full conversion to New Style gives the date 31 March See Thony, Christie Calendrical confusion or just when did Newton die?

Archived from the original on 16 March An Attempt at a Reinterpretation " in Isis , Vol. Retrieved 4 January His Singular Behaviour and His Madness of —93". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Digital Library. Retrieved 10 January A Cambridge Alumni Database. The History of the Telescope. Droz, , pp. Retrieved 3 February Retrieved 6 October A Biography of Isaac Newton.

Optics and Photonics News. Popular Science Monthly Volume 17, July. Hatch, University of Florida. Retrieved 13 August British Journal for the History of Science. The History of Parliament: Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 1 August Newton and the counterfeiter: Historic Heraldry of Britain 2nd ed. Retrieved 16 January Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 30 July Isaac Newton is Knighted". Retrieved 18 August Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 23 September Eric Weisstein's World of Biography.

Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 25 April Charles Hutton , who in the late eighteenth century collected oral traditions about earlier scientists, declared that there "do not appear to be any sufficient reason for his never marrying, if he had an inclination so to do.

It is much more likely that he had a constitutional indifference to the state, and even to the sex in general. A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary Containing Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 22 March Online Archive of California.

Wilson, History of Science: Lagrange," Oeuvres de Lagrange I. A History — , p The New York Times. Retrieved 12 July Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists; Newton runner-up". Retrieved 17 January Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 5 May


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Sir Isaac Newton's greatest contribution to science was his discovery of the theory of gravitation and its importance. When Newton saw an apple falling from a tree, he realized that there had to be an exerting force that was pulling the apple down towards the earth/5(4).

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Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and astronomer. Newton was one of the greatest scientific geniuses of all time. He formulated the basic laws of mechanics and gravitation and applied them to explain the workings of the solar system—to the satisfaction of scientists for more than two centuries.

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Sir Issac Newton () was an english phisicist and mathematician. When Newton was young, his primary school headmaster asked everyone to add all the numbers from one to one hundred. Issac found that 1 and equals to , and so does 2 . - Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton’s life follows the quote, “Good is the enemy of great,”-Jim Collins. Isaac Newton started from ground zero and decided to work his way up in life to being good at anything he wanted to.

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Essay on Sir Isaac Newton ( Words) Article shared by Sir Isaac Newton was born on 25 December and is believed to be the greatest and . Sir Isaac Newton: Brilliant Mathematician and Scientist Essay examples S ir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and a mathematician who was also one of the greatest scientists that ever lived. In the branch of physics, he discovered the three laws of motion and was the first person to explain gravitation, defining the nature of mass, force.