Albert Bandura, a renowned psychologist, put forth the brilliant concept of reciprocal determinism. Bandura's theory states that a person's behavior is influenced by the environment and vice versa.
In simpler terms, it means that the environment tends to make changes in the behavior of the individual, and in return, the behavior of the individual is also responsible for a change in the environment. So, it means that not only does the environment influence the person's thinking, but the person's subsequent behavior also influences the environment. Thus, there are three main factors that are dealt with in this theory. They are known as triadic reciprocal causation.
Determinism is the theory that portrays that a person's actions, behavior, or decisions are just an outcome of the events that have happened in the past. This means that our actions are just reactions to what has already happened. The way we behave today is just a reaction to past events.
He agreed with the theory of determinism that our behavior and actions are a causation of past events, but he was also of the opinion that the environment is caused or affected by our behavior as well.
It will only make the situation worse for both the parties. Hence, both social and physical behavior will create a more restrictive environment and lead to further behavior disorders. This will lead to getting lower marks in the exam, which will lead to the child being at the receiving end of his parents' and teacher's reprimands environment. The Bobo Doll Experiment.
The Bobo doll experiment is the most widely-acknowledged experiment conducted by him. For this model, Bandura used a visual aid, a video which had one of his students beating a Bobo doll, which is an inflated toy with some weight put at the bottom of it to pop it back up when hit. The video showed a woman hitting, kicking, screaming at the doll, and knocking it, displaying various levels of aggression. Bandura showed this film to some kindergarten children. Personality traits like extraversion or neuroticism, and the behavior associated with them, are triggered by neurological and hormonal processes within the body.
There is no need for the concept of an autonomous human being. Ultimately this view sees us as no more than biological machines and even consciousness itself is interpreted as a level of arousal in the nervous system. However, a problem with determinism is that it is inconsistent with society's ideas of responsibility and self control that form the basis of our moral and legal obligations. One of the main assumptions of the humanistic approach is that humans have free will; not all behavior is determined.
Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences. For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow and Rogers freedom is not only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings.
Both see self-actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation setting us apart from all other species. There is thus a line to be drawn between the natural and the social sciences. To take a simple example, when two chemicals react there is no sense in imagining that they could behave in any other way than the way they do.
However when two people come together they could agree, fall out, come to a compromise, start a fight and so on. The permutations are endless and in order to understand their behavior we would need to understand what each party to the relationship chooses to do.
Cognitive psychologists are also inclined to attribute importance to free will, and adopt a soft determinism view. However whereas humanists are especially interested in our choice of ends how each of us sees the road to self actualization cognitive psychologists are more inclined to focus on the choice of means.
In other words for them it is the rational processing of information which goes into the making of a decision which is their main interest. Conscious reflection on our own behavior is seen as the best way of achieving goals and learning from mistakes. Mental illnesses appear to undermine the concept of freewill. For example, individuals with OCD lose control of their thoughts and actions and people with depression lose control over their emotions. However there is also an intermediate position that goes back to the psychoanalytic psychology of Sigmund Freud.
At first sight Freud seems to be a supporter of determinism in that he argued that our actions and our thoughts are controlled by the unconscious. However the very goal of therapy was to help the patient overcome that force. Indeed without the belief that people can change therapy itself makes no sense. This insight has been taken up by several neo-Freudians. Behavior consist of environmental and individual parts that interlink together to function.
Research conducted in this field include the study of doctor-patient relationships where one group of patients are termed 'physician-reliant' and the other group 'self-reliant'.
The physician-reliant patients tend to be more passive in their decision making and rely on their physicians to make their choices for them. Self-reliant patients take a more active role in deciding which health options would better suit them. Another relevant research is regarding the reciprocal determinism of self-efficacy and mathematical performance. It shows that reciprocal determinism may not be the appropriate model in all cultures but does take place in most.
Self-efficacy is a conceptualized assessment of the person's competence to perform a specific task. Self-efficacy results from success or failures that arise in attempts to learn a task. Self-efficacy, measure by a personal confidence level before each question, and the mathematical scores were obtained in 41 countries for the study by Kitty and Trevor Williams.
The reciprocal determinism of mathematics self-efficacy and achievement was found in 26 of the 30 nations.
They suggest that this might be a fundamental psychological process that takes place across national boundaries. Another study looked at the relationship of self-efficacy and job culture with job satisfaction among athletic trainers. The study used Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model as a template to label job satisfaction as the behavioural factor, self-efficacy as the personal factor, and job culture as the environmental factor. Triadic reciprocal causation is a term introduced by Albert Bandura  to refer to the mutual influence between three sets of factors:.
Behavioral genetics is a relatively new field of study attempting to make sense of both genetic and environmental contributions to individual variations in human behavior. Genes can be turned on and off. Multiple genes are factors in forming behavior traits. Researchers believe there is a genetic link to impulsive aggression through the impact of a gene on the production of an enzyme called Monoamine oxidase A MAOA.
A year study in New Zealand found strong correlation between experience of childhood abuse and criminal or violent behavior in males with the MAOA gene.
Reciprocal Determinism. According to Albert Bandura, a person's behavior is both influenced by and influences a person's personal factors and the environment.
Reciprocal determinism is the idea that behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events.
Psychology Definition of RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM: An assertion that a reciprocal relation exists among environment, behavior and the individual. That is . Albert Bandura put forth the concept of reciprocal determinism, which purports that not only does the environment influence the person, but the person also brings about a change in the environment.
Video: Reciprocal Determinism: Definition & Example This lesson provides a definition of the psychological theory or reciprocal determinism, developed by Albert Bandura, and provides examples of how this theory works in our social world. A comprehensive review of terminology for AP Psychology. Definitions are for triggering other information. (Pulled from other lists.) Search. operational definition. reciprocal determinism. Bandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment.