Focus on a limited aspect, e. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.
For general or background information, check out useful URLs , general information online , almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point. Pay attention to domain name extensions, e. These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for.
Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken.
For instance, if Books. Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:.
Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval.
If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.
Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.
It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject.
The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read. Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise.
Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper.
An informal outline working outline is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.
Certainly, you can make flexible use of a format with more or less complete recipe of a formal documentation. And, why a formal format? This is to impress upon you that even a simplified report is no less a serious undertaking and, thus, deserves your formal treatment. Consequently, as observer who reports observations, you are likewise a researcher. As such, feel totally free to modify change, add, or delete any item in the suggested guide to suit your specific purposes and needs.
Feel free as well on whether or not to insert subheadings. Overall, just keep in mind that the resulting format must offer you a scheme for logical thinking- your writing guide.
Most important, remember that the main purpose of your custom report is to inform readers of the status of information surrounding your problem and then recommend to them any further course of actions. Introduce your study; state its origin and the rationale behind its conceptualization Background. Support your rationale with previous studies, and cite only the most significant and relevant sources A Brief Literature Review.
State clearly your main study concern or problem plus your justifications for choosing the problem. Cite the benefits, relevance, or advantages that may be derived from your study findings Significance of the Study.
How did you observe or conduct your study? Subsequently, describe your research design or your methodological strategy to tackle your problem Methodology: The data used and how they were obtained data collection procedures and instruments used.
For example, if you did a plain literature survey, include with your gathered materials your plan and procedures on the literature search. In certain instances, you might need to clarify some important terms by giving them conceptual and operational meanings Definition of Terms.
If your study utilized documents with their own "Definition of Terms" or "Glossary," include these as well. What have you found?
This section is the meat of your report- it contains all the findings of your study Results. Group similar findings under respective sub-sections and discuss them according to decreasing significance or relevance to the study problem. Along the way, support your statements with any pertinent citation or well known opinions.
Again, you are reporting the state of knowledge surrounding your study problem. Hence, be accurate with every account. Be objective in your entire presentation of the results. Just present the facts that you have found, and leave your readers the room for individual interpretation and judgment.
Did you learn something from your own study? Have you derived some personal insights or discoveries? In succeeding sub-sections or so, present your own analyses, opinions, criticisms, or advocacy supported also by any literature or previous studies Discussions.
Just make sure that the readers see a clear distinction between what is due to you and what was found by your study.
All you do is stare at a blank sheet of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead. A major goal of this course is the development of effective technical writing skills. To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab.
Our research papers are not typical "lab reports. Such an assignment hardly represents the kind of writing you might be doing in your eventual career. Written and oral communications skills are probably the most universal qualities sought by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers. You alone are responsible for developing such skills to a high level. Before you begin your first writing assignment, please consult all of the following resources, in order to gain the most benefit from the experience.
For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper Bioc An objective of organizing a research paper is to allow people to read your work selectively. When I research a topic, I may be interested in just the methods, a specific result, the interpretation, or perhaps I just want to see a summary of the paper to determine if it is relevant to my study.
To this end, many journals require the following sections, submitted in the order listed, each section to start on a new page. There are variations of course. Some journals call for a combined results and discussion, for example, or include materials and methods after the body of the paper. The well known journal Science does away with separate sections altogether, except for the abstract.
Your papers are to adhere to the form and style required for the Journal of Biological Chemistry, requirements that are shared by many journals in the life sciences. Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines.
Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package. Include the name s and address es of all authors, and date submitted. An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress. In a minute or less a reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions. Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed.
After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written? Economy of words is important throughout any paper, but especially in an abstract. However, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one purpose. For example, "In order to learn the role of protein synthesis in early development of the sea urchin, newly fertilized embryos were pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, to provide a time course of changes in synthetic rate, as measured by total counts per minute cpm.
The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results. Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it. It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives.
The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Approaches vary widely, however for our studies the following approach can produce an effective introduction. This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work.
It is not to be a step by step description of everything you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. In particular, it is not supposed to tell a story. By the way, your notebook should contain all of the information that you need for this section. The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. Make this section a completely objective report of the results, and save all interpretation for the discussion.
You must clearly distinguish material that would normally be included in a research article from any raw data or other appendix material that would not be published. In fact, such material should not be submitted at all unless requested by the instructor.
The objective here is to provide an interpretation of your results and support for all of your conclusions, using evidence from your experiment and generally accepted knowledge, if appropriate. The significance of findings should be clearly described. Interpret your data in the discussion in appropriate depth. This means that when you explain a phenomenon you must describe mechanisms that may account for the observation.
If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened. If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It is never appropriate to simply state that the data agreed with expectations, and let it drop at that.
The biggest mistake that students make in discussions is to present a superficial interpretation that more or less re-states the results. It is necessary to suggest why results came out as they did, focusing on the mechanisms behind the observations.
Writing a Research Report: Getting Started • Writing is an iterative process. – Therefore you do not have to start at the beginning! Whatever you do. Just start writing! Writing a Research Report.
This review is divided into sections for easy reference. There are five MAJOR parts of a Research Report: 1. Introduction 2. Review of Literature 3. Methods 4. Results 5. Discussion. As a general guide, the Introduction, Review of Literature, and Methods should be about 1/3 .
To help you become an accomplished writer, you will prepare several research papers based upon the studies completed in lab. Our research papers are not typical "lab reports." In a teaching lab a lab report might be nothing more than answers to a set of questions. Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so .
Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other unethical writing practices from Michael Roig, funded by the Office of Research Integrity. Avoiding Plagiarism from the Writing Place at Northwestern. Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers by Robert Harris. Purdue Writing Center including exercises to learn to avoid plagiarism. RESEARCH REPORT WRITING Meghana Sudhir 2. DEFINITION Research report is a condensed form or a brief description of the research work done by the researcher.