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# Quantitative research

## Data Analysis Technique 2: Descriptive Statistics

❶Quantitative methods are an integral component of the five angles of analysis fostered by the data percolation methodology, [7] which also includes qualitative methods, reviews of the literature including scholarly , interviews with experts and computer simulation, and which forms an extension of data triangulation.

## Qualitative vs Quantitative Data Analysis

An important thing to remember when using correlations is that a correlation does not explain causation. A correlation merely indicates that a relationship or pattern exists, but it does not mean that one variable is the cause of the other.

An analysis of variance ANOVA is used to determine whether the difference in means averages for two groups is statistically significant. For example, an analysis of variance will help you determine if the high school grades of those students who participated in the summer program are significantly different from the grades of students who did not participate in the program.

Regression is an extension of correlation and is used to determine whether one variable is a predictor of another variable.

A regression can be used to determine how strong the relationship is between your intervention and your outcome variables. More importantly, a regression will tell you whether a variable e. A variable can have a positive or negative influence, and the strength of the effect can be weak or strong.

Like correlations, causation can not be inferred from regression. Quantitative Analysis in Evaluation Before you begin your analysis, you must identify the level of measurement associated with the quantitative data.

There are four levels of measurement: T-shirt size small, medium, large Example: Fahrenheit degrees Remember that ratios are meaningless for interval data. You cannot say, for example, that one day is twice as hot as another day. Items measured on a Likert scale — rank your satisfaction on scale of For example — 10 inches is twice as long as 5 inches This ratio hold true regardless of which scale the object is being measured in e.

Below you will learn how about: Data Tabulation Descriptives Disaggregating the Data Moderate and Advanced Analytical Methods The first thing you should do with your data is tabulate your results for the different variables in your data set.

This will help you determine: The most common descriptives used are: If you know where to get the qualitative analysis help the whole procedure will be very easy for you. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data is different.

For getting the flexible and precise results for your research it is important to use reliable research methods and follow the instructions for the research conduction but that is not enough. The qualitative analysis provides good opportunities to gather the profound and extensive data for the research but does not generalize the population. The quantitative analysis causes limited conclusions as it ignores the additional factors for analysis so the better practice for researchers becomes combining advantages of both analyses.

How Can It Help? Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis: Please accept our Terms. Your message has been successfully sent! We will get back to you soon. Qualitative vs Quantitative Data Analysis But what are the differences between quantitative and qualitative data analysis that make them particularly good or bad for some kind of research?

Rich and Precise The detailed picture that is rich of data and descriptions appears to be the ultimate purpose of conducting a qualitative analysis. General, Steady and Reliable For the quantitative analysis, the researcher needs to process the received data using the detailed set of classification and rules, before that the futures are classified, that helps to create the statistical models, reflecting the outcomes of the observation.

Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Data Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis bear their own value and have features that can contribute the research results of each other and enrich the research results.

Apart of those questions you need to determine the key elements like: Who conducts the research? What are the research questions? Usually a big sample of data is collected — this would require verification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place. Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes.

In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise.

Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported. In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Empirical relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of general linear model , non-linear model, or by using factor analysis.

A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causation , although some such as Clive Granger suggest that a series of correlations can imply a degree of causality.

This principle follows from the fact that it is always possible a spurious relationship exists for variables between which covariance is found in some degree. Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of statistics.

Views regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent. Measurement is often regarded as being only a means by which observations are expressed numerically in order to investigate causal relations or associations. However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon.

He argued that such abnormalities are interesting when done during the process of obtaining data, as seen below:. In classical physics, the theory and definitions which underpin measurement are generally deterministic in nature. In contrast, probabilistic measurement models known as the Rasch model and Item response theory models are generally employed in the social sciences. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique for measuring social and psychological attributes and phenomena.

This field is central to much quantitative research that is undertaken within the social sciences. Quantitative research may involve the use of proxies as stand-ins for other quantities that cannot be directly measured. Tree-ring width, for example, is considered a reliable proxy of ambient environmental conditions such as the warmth of growing seasons or amount of rainfall.

Although scientists cannot directly measure the temperature of past years, tree-ring width and other climate proxies have been used to provide a semi-quantitative record of average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere back to A. When used in this way, the proxy record tree ring width, say only reconstructs a certain amount of the variance of the original record.

The proxy may be calibrated for example, during the period of the instrumental record to determine how much variation is captured, including whether both short and long term variation is revealed.

In the case of tree-ring width, different species in different places may show more or less sensitivity to, say, rainfall or temperature:

## Main Topics

﻿Quantitative Research Methods Quantitative means quantity which implies that there is something that can be counted. Quantitative research has been defined in many ways. It is the kind of research that involves the tallying, manipulation or systematic aggregation of quantities of data (Henning, ) John W. Creswell defined quantitative research as an inquiry into a social or human problem.

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Analyze Quantitative Data. Quantitative data analysis is helpful in evaluation because it provides quantifiable and easy to understand results. Quantitative data can be analyzed in a variety of different ways. Due to sample size restrictions, the types of quantitative methods at your disposal are limited. However, there are several.