Here below, I will endeavor to expose the leading theories dealing with the question of nature vs. We animals exist for their preservation and are nothing more than their throwaway survival machines. In his international best seller book, he argues that we are merely a product of our genes and our main purpose in life is to serve the genes, become distribution agents and ensure their proliferation.
Nature represents what we are born with and cannot control. Our biological make up is determined by the genes we receive from our parents reside in the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 23 from each parent. These genes not only affect our outlook, but also play a significant role in determining our behavior and our well-being.
Twins monozygotes are of extraordinary importance when studying heredity because they share identical copies of genes. When I was growing up she always kept the house perfectly ordered. She insisted on every little thing returned to its proper place,… I learned from her. What else could I do? Both twins blamed their mothers for their behaviors, while none of the mothers required such neatness. Another study on heredity and alcoholism conducted by Goodwin et al. Even though scientists have only identified 16, out of the total , genes, many psychological diseases are on the verge of being unraveled.
Take for instance schizophrenia, a disease characterized by hallucinations, delusions, flat or inappropriate emotional expression, paranoia and suspiciousness. New findings point out to its relatedness to genetics. Genetic markers for schizophrenia are founded on chromosomes 22, 6, 13, 8 and 9, De Angelis, Tori.
These examples reveal the genetic role in our development. They also expose our predisposition to certain traits and behaviors. The second camp sitting on the other side of the fence is the advocates for nurture.
Here, nurture represents our surrounding: People in this camp argue that man is a product of his environment. Alcoholism, for example, can recur in families and it has been found that certain genes may influence the development of alcoholism and the way alcohol effects the body.
Alternatively, to nativists, empiricists believe that the human mind is a blank slate at birth and any characteristics we develop are a result of our experiences and environment. With point of view speculates that psychological characteristics and our behavioral tendencies are things we learned during our development.
While the concept of maturation applies to the biological development we experience, any psychological growth is a result of the way we are brought up. An example of this would be the way infants form attachment. The formation of attachment is a direct result of the love and attention a child receives. If they are not given love and attention, the attachment will not develop.
Similarly, we learn language by mirroring the speech we hear from others. In addition, Skinner believed that language is something individuals learn from others via behavioral shaping techniques.
John Watson, one of the most well-known psychologists to propose environmental learning as the dominating factor in the nature versus nurture debate, feels that our behavioral traits are purely a result of our surroundings and experiences. He felt that he could condition a new behavior in a child or alter an already existing behavior that is considered to be unfavorable Sincero Watson believed that he could randomly choose any baby out of a group of twelve infants and raise the child to become any type of specialist he chose.
Just like nature, nurture affects our mental health, as well. While someone may have a genetic disposition for one condition or another, there still needs to be an environmental trigger for that condition to develop. In a similar way, the basis for addiction is not entirely determined by genetics. Certain environmental aspects, such as the habits of our friends, partners, and parents, can contribute significantly to the development of addiction.
A genetic predisposition to alcoholism becomes entirely more significant when the individual in question is frequently exposed to alcohol abuse and comes to view the harmful behavior as normal. The strongest predictor was life events and experiences that contributed to the development of the mental condition, such as abuse, bullying, or childhood trauma. Today, most people agree that our characteristics are a result of a combination of both nature and nurture.
There is enough support for both sides to completely count either side out. Clearly, both nature and nurture can affect the development of certain disorders. Francis Galton was the first to pose this question during the late nineteenth century. A relative of Charles Darwin, he felt that intellectual ability was mostly attributed to genetics and that the tendency for genius to be a familial trait was the result of natural superiority McLeod Many others have agreed throughout history, which has spurred an influx of intelligence testing; in particular, on separated twins and adopted children.
Arthur Jenson is an American psychologist who is a modern proponent of nature over nurture. Jenson cites average IQ scores in which black Americans scored significantly lower than white participants and suggested that as much as eighty percent of intelligence is inherited McLeod It was widely agreed that his study was tainted by social and political implications that are often drawn from various studies that claim to represent natural inequalities between race and other social groups.
Differences in IQ scores between various ethnic groups can be explained by biases in testing methods and social inequalities in access to resources and opportunities McLeod Similarly, it is hotly debated whether or not alleged intelligence difference in male versus female results is a consequence of biology or culture.
Now, however, the scientific world has come to understand that trying to place a numerical value on nature and nurture to judge which is more important is not really the right approach Davies Intelligence, for example, is a complex human characteristic that can exhibit itself in a wide variety of ways from genius to basic common sense.
By attempting to place quantitative values on the separate factors, we fail to focus on the fact that biology and environment interact in a host of important and intricate ways Ridley Today, most people agree that neither biology nor environment act independently of one another. Both are necessary for any characteristic to manifest. Because they are dependent on each other and interact in such a complex manner, it is illogical to attempt to think of them separately. Rather than defending nativists or empiricists, most psychologists are now more interested in researching the ways in which nature and nurture interact with each other to develop characteristics and traits.
In psychotherapy, this means that not only does there need to be a genetic disposition required for mental disorders to develop, but there also needs to be an environmental trigger, as well Feller The recognition of this important relationship is especially important given the genetic advancements made during the twenty-first century.
The Human Genome Project and advent of bioengineering sparked wide interest in tracing types of behavior to particular strands of DNA found on certain chromosomes McLeod Scientists expect to soon find specific genes that are linked to criminality, alcoholism, and other characteristics. Psychologists have been debating the influence of nature versus nurture over human characteristics for a very long time. After the scientific world came to recognize that biology and environment both play a role, the emphasis shifted to determining which was more important.
Now though, as we have come to truly understand the complexity of the relationship between our genetic dispositions and environmental triggers, we no longer focus on one versus the other, but rather the way they interact with and affect each other. While it is certainly helpful in the development of certain conditions for there to be a genetic disposition, there almost always needs to be an environmental trigger that causes the characteristic to manifest in an individual.
Nature vs Nurture Debate Essay - Nature vs Nurture Debate Nature versus Nurture is the issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior and development. In this issue nature can be defined as, behaviors due to heredity.
Nature vs Nurture is an ongoing debate in human development. This sample essay looks at both sides as well as the two working in conjunction with one another.4/5(5).
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Nature Vs Nurture Essay. Free Essay: Nature vs Nurture Debate Nature versus Nurture is the issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior and development.
Example of a thesis for a ‘Nature vs Nurture’ essay Nature has some profound impact on the development of a child; however, it is the element of nurture which determines their level of growth and most important development. Essay: Nature vs. Nurture or The controversy over what determines who we are, whether it is Nature (heredity, our biological make up) or Nurture (our environment) is taking a new shape. Through the past decades, psychologists have developed different theories to explain the characteristics of human-beings; how we feel, think and behave.