There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments. Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science. You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views.
The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.
You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page. Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines.
If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person:. If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mail , you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.
Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be. List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list viz. Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.
For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list. If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. As a rule of thumb, if there is more than one author of a source, simply use the first author's last name, followed by et al. This is Latin for "and others". The complete list of authors will appear in the full citation at the end of your paper.
Your Literature Cited should appear in alphabetical order by first author, and by year if there are multiple sources by the same author s. Underline journal and book titles, but not the titles of individual articles in journals or edited multi-authored books. Use the following as examples for citing various kinds of sources with thanks to M. Glimpsing the hidden majority. Phosphotization of soft tissue in experiments and fossils.
Journal of the Geological Society
In this system (sometimes called the Harvard system), in-text references consist of the surname of the author or authors and the year of publication of the document. End references are unnumbered and appear in alphabetical order by author and year of publication, with multiple works by the same author listed in chronological order.
For example: Lewis, Rice and Jones contend that citing a source with multiple authors is not difficult (45). List the authors' names in the parenthetical citation. For example: The authors state that, "citing sources with multiple authors is not difficult if the steps .
There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments. If the reference you are citing has more than two authors, use the. Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper For two author papers, give both authors' last names (e.g., no comma (if full name is given, then use a comma); if multiple authors, use commas between; capitalization of the words in the title is just as though it were a sentence;.
Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. MLA Citation Examples; Print Page MLA Citation Examples. Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, Citing multiple authors. See Authors, below. Authors. One author. Example: Works Cited List. Example: MLA offers no guidance on citing electronic conference papers of any kind.