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What do you want to do? Child Language Acquisition - Writing. Child Language Acquisition - Writing An example of an essay analysing two texts of a child's creative writing work. For English Language at A Level. Preview 1 out of 2 pages. English Language 1st year. KatyQue95 Member since 4 year ago 4 documents sold.

Trusted by students worldwide Over the past month, 21, students have bought study materials through Stuvia. Immediately available, always accessible Your summaries are immediately downloadable after purchase, wherever and whenever you study, in both digital and hardcopy formats.

Then you will be refunded for the entire amount, as Stuvia credit. Payments are handled through a secure TLS-Connection so your information is always well protected. Disabilities Students With Reading Disabilities. This is particularly true for students with learning disabilities. Secondary students' reading performance reaches a plateau during their high school years, and it is clear that the performance gap between their abilities and what they are expected to do widens Mock, Adolescents who lack basic literacy skills need intensive, focused, sustained instruction to help them catch up with their peers.

Conclusion Reading disabilities are life long; however, the effects may be mitigated to support learning, living, and earning, particularly when identified early and dealt with effectively.

Language acquisition with phonemic awareness correlates to learning to read, plus it is an accurate predictor of reading success. Furthermore, it is important to identify reading disabilities early so that effective intervention strategies are employed. High school students are in a transitional phase and without the necessary scaffolding support and tools to enhance self-efficacy, young adults will have challenges to becoming self-sustaining. What would be the characteristics of the things you intended to teach?

If your students made mistakes, what would you do? If they refused to talk, what would you do? First impressions are important in establishing a good relationship between teachers and students.

Foreign students often come to the classroom with many fears. Cary, Therefore, it is very important that the teacher establish a friendly, enthusiastic atmosphere free of any negative vibes. Samway, Even though the students are afraid, this can be eased by a friendly smile and pleasant small talk. This is especially important before giving any sort of assessment test, which should be given during the first class of the term as part of class orientation.

During the first three weeks, I would make an effort to…… [Read More]. The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal.

Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7 6 , However, this can be a challenging task for teachers of ESL, particularly given the multitasking they are forced to perform on a daily basis in the classroom and the additional academic demands under which they operate.

Teaching English to a non-native speaker, and then attempting to aid the student to function in a biology or a math class, whether the alternative subject is in simplified English or even the student's first language, can sometimes seem like an insurmountable task. However, the article "The effects of songs in the…… [Read More]. Teaching Methods Teacher's Roles in. ELLs frequently disappear in these comprehensive settings. Similar interpretations about mainstreaming have been made in other English-speaking countries such as Australia, Britain and Canada, where ELLs are also categorized and served under a larger authority of diversity education or literacy education intended for native English speakers who may have learning requirements very dissimilar from their own Harper and de Jong, Teaching approaches are founded on theories.

ESL teachers often use an assortment of methods. According to Theories in Second Language Acquisition, ESL teachers engage in undertakings that involve students in the learning procedure, like dialogue. Theories in Second Language Acquisition specify that students absorb some features of the second language liberated of teaching. The ESL teacher's guidance on education may be incomplete and reliant on student capability.

ESL teachers find instances that enable both individual and group education by paying consideration to classroom undercurrents. ESL teachers have to stay…… [Read More]. Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.

Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.

Link to previous research: The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2.

Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire virtually every…… [Read More].

Globalization Trends Globalization Means a. Incomes and Demographics By , despite much faster growth, individuals in those countries are still predicted to be poorer than those persons living in any of the now G6 economies. Russia is the exception, essentially catching up with the poorer of the G6 in terms of income per capita by By , China's income per capita could measure up what Korea's is today.

Demographics play an crucial role in the way the world will change. Learning styles are qualities of how students choose to learn, and they play a crucial function in learning.

A crucial step in promoting learning is to determine or evaluate the learning styles that every student adapts. Enhancing students' academic performance entails offering optional activities and strategies that corresponds to their learning style requirement and preferences. Students learn, develop and attain better results when their lessons development focuses on attaining the preferences of their learning styles. Moreover, the motivation of students augments when their instructors focus their attention to the student's learning styles preferences.

In reaction to…… [Read More]. This paper states appropriate goals and objectives, objectives, outcomes, rationale, describe content presentation methods, instructional strategies, learning activities, technology, assessment techniques and teaching materials.

There are a total of thirty students in the class and their ages range from years. According to the information that has been provided by the cooperating teacher there are four are English learners in the class, three are re-designated English learners while two of the students have IEP's, from among these two one has auditory memory issues and the other has ADHD. Class Background All the…… [Read More]. Effects of Outsourcing in Today's Economy.

Impact on company Effects on Economy Capital flows Impact on technology Global management and outsourcing The effects of outsourcing in today's economy Outsourcing has become an increasingly popular business strategy for transnational organizations. Many of the U. This was due to the potential advantages, both from an economic as well as regulatory perspective that business operations in foreign lands provided to these businesses.

Gradually, when the cost benefits were realized, other companies from various industrial sectors also strengthened this trend of outsourcing. Pharmaceutical industry was the first to witness…… [Read More]. Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second. Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language: Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach.

For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar syntax , vocabulary semantics , or other textual aspects.

Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process Carrell and Eisterhold, In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text.

Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts Carrell and Eisterhold, Goodman is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term…… [Read More]. Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning WBL.

WBL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WBL is imparted.

An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in Britain that U.

K took expedited policy actions to introduce WBL. WBL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language ESL. Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U. K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills.

Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]. Academic Competence includes a number of components that are critical for effective English as a Second Language ESL instruction, including universal pragmatic knowledge, knowledge and skills in the target language, and background knowledge Adamson Language acquisition is achieved by making it comprehensible and significant to a person's life Diaz-Rico In order to achieve the definitive goal of English language achievement, a student must develop specific skills that will result in successful academic achievement in the classroom and that will allow a smooth transition to daily living.

Upon knowledge of these new meanings, the teacher and the student must engage in collaborative efforts in order to facilitate student understanding Diaz-Rico By utilizing existing skills in the fluent language, the student will be able to build upon these language…… [Read More].

Adult Literacy Educational Program Design. Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning.

Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy. Materials and Course Design A situation analysis, giving all details available before the course begins: This TOSEL teacher is assigned to assist and teach student in establishing sound understanding of English language, coping with the required skills and academic strategies to assist the process of gaining firm proficiency in English language as necessitated by the course design and classroom environment Dorr, Teacher assigned by TESOL is also a member of programming system as a support member, the team of which is designed to develop a close relation with students and collaboration with other related groups including programming team, parents, other teachers, administrative staff and counselors…… [Read More].

Teaching and Learning Through Using Stories in the Young Learner Classroom - Annotated Bibliography In my research paper, I intend to analyse the methodologies and implications of using stories as a vital tool for young learners in a class room. To support my study, I have studied five papers that are either from a book or from a journal. The first and the fourth paper summarized here talks about how stories can help in increasing the vocabulary of children.

Stories are described as a means to sustain brain activity in young people. The second paper by Husbands and Pearce talks about the need to have a multi-pronged teaching strategy to have an inclusive learning environment.

Their article supports the need of story-telling as part of the strategy. The third paper ideates the need of creating a syllabus parallel to the contemporary one with main focus on story-telling.

The final article…… [Read More]. Creative Writing in English Singapore. Over time British rule affected every aspect of life in Singapore including education. Gupta explains that "The educational impact of the political developments was essentially a move from the private to the public. As the British government became increasingly directly involved in Singapore, an education policy began to develop Bloom , Gupta In the early years education was largely in the hands of private organisations, churches, and charitable bodies.

The Annual Report on the Administration of the Straits Settlements has a brief section on education from the report of onwards, and this report gets more and more substantial as time goes on. Schools, both government and non-government, were increasingly supervised and compliance with policy had financial consequences as the century progressed Gupta Dual Immersion Programs in California.

The goal for these dual immersion programs is to develop a high level of proficiency in both the first and the second language, as well as grade level academic achievement and cross-cultural skills. Dual immersion programs are implemented according to the student population. The features and variations of the program depend on many factors, including local policy, the grade levels that are served, languages that are needed for instruction, and the time spent on each one.

Most dual immersion programs serve elementary level students, also, which is very limiting to the entrance of monolingual students after the third grade. That is due to the difficulty of students who need to catch up with bilingual competence after that grade. Students benefit from dual immersion programs,…… [Read More]. Bilingual Research Journal Brj According. But in any case, a shortage of qualified bilingual teachers usually makes it impossible. A combined blend of immersion and resource support, or a transitional approach is often necessary from an administrative and logistical as well as an ideological point-of-view -- there are simply not enough teachers.

What approach is best? Beyond the rhetorical fury of those who are 'English Only' advocates, devout multiculturalists, or concerned parents, it is often hard to find unbiased, quality research about the outcomes of current programs and strategies. The most sophisticated evaluation study of different approaches was…… [Read More].

The LDDI results were rated separately and were compared with an inter-rater reliability of. Results were categorized independently and were then categorizations in three areas were compared: The LDDI is a survey instrument with six independent scales used to identify specific learning disabilities.

Listening, Reading, Writing, Mathematics, and Reasoning. Each scale has fifteen items associated with behaviors that typically indicate specific intrinsic processing disorders. None of the students were experiencing academic failure and none had been referred to special education.

The LDDI was completed by each student, and the teacher raters completed demographic sheets for each student. External evaluators scored the LDDI tests. To obtain results two statistical procedures were executed.

First, independent t-tests indicated significant differences at the. Evaluating Children's Speech Development. In general, in the field of linguistics, there is an accepted rate and pattern by which such words are acquired. The researchers hypothesized that there might be differentiation based upon population subsets, however. The research was critical given that such normative data is used when making interventions to improve children's speech production. Thus, based upon the results this could mean changes in the way children…… [Read More].

Australian Classroom the Effect of. There were some interesting results in the answers obtained. This interesting fact demonstrates that the Iraqi school system is behind the Australian school system and the Iraqi learners will need further 2nd language training.

The fourth question delves into the educational background of the Iraqi students parents. A Muslim belief dictates many of the findings because Iraqi females often are not schooled and in some cases are illiterate. Brevity is also necessary because reading for content and for linguistic problem solving is the focus" Kruger. In contrast to the brevity of the intensive program the extensive program "consists of longer selections, that are assigned to be read outside of class, like novels or short stories" Kruger.

Of course a major goal of the program was English language knowledge and reading comprehension, but "Vocabulary building is an intrinsic part of all aspects of the program too," and "Increasing reading speed is an integral by-product of this program, and comes about naturally as a result of increasing facility in reading" Kruger.

Reading speed was not seen as essential, but, as the author said, it was a natural "by-product" of the program. Both of these last two features also were desired features of the programs. Reading comprehension truly comes with an increased vocabulary, and as students understand the material better they…… [Read More].

Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences.

Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language i. Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…… [Read More]. Bilingual Education Methods Pros and Cons.

Pros and Cons Once upon a time, perhaps, the art of teaching was relatively strait-forward. Each teacher used their own style, or that which had been handed down to them by those they learned from. While certainly a certain degree of theory has always been involved in teaching after all, the so-called Socratic method of teaching was debated centuries before the birth of Christ, and is still cropping up as a controversial pedagogy , it was not until very recently that a great deal of academic attention was turned not just to the subject matter in schools, but to the way in which they were taught.

Even so, the methodology of teaching second languages, as a separate study from general pedagogy, is even more recent. Acculturation of ESL Learners in. Herron investigated whether students retain more "little c" cultural "practices" or "big C" cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program Herron, , p.

Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" understanding cultural practices than to "big C" cultural products. Mass Media Facilitates Acculturation of.

The variables were in some instances, however, a bit too general and limited -- for example, in terms of social activity assessment both external and internal factors were measured, but this was too general to bring about any truly definitive results. The measurement of acculturation was also felt to be too general and did not include enough criteria and variables to be very effective.

Nevertheless, the results of this survey in terms of the findings of the relationship between the media and acculturation were significant and noteworthy. It is also noteworthy that the measurement fro acculturation and the use of media was comprehensive and included a wide range of aspects, including exposure and media-related needs. One of the significant findings from this survey was that the level of social knowledge was relatively low.

The means score out a possible 10 ten points was 4. Females were…… [Read More]. Morphology and the Education of the ELL. Maria This cultural case study examines the language competencies, social and human capital assets of a Spanish immigrant to the U. She is 16 and lives in a community where the Hispanic population is considerable.

Her family is supportive and engaged in her life and she receives substantial assistance from them. She is motivated and does well in her studies. She is able to practice her L1 and her L2 all the time thanks to a school that is good at helping ELLs and a community that shares in her ethnic background where her L1 is still commonly used among the inhabitants.

This paper also provides some simple suggestions for what the school could do to continue to help Maria to achieve her objectives. Introduction Maria is an ELL who has a strong personal and cultural identity. She is Hispanic -- an immigrant from Spain…… [Read More]. Curriculum Development What Historical or. In schools with a small number of ELLs, "…first generation immigrant students do better academically if they aren't placed in an ESL class" Zehr, p.

This may be true because ELLs aren't invited to access to mainstream "…core academic curriculum"; also, their counterparts that are in mainstream classes with no ESL available "do better academically than students who are put in ESL classes" again this is only true in schools with few ELLs Zehr, p. How has the gifted educational movement impacted the evolution of curriculum development?

Address both negative and positive impacts…provide examples. For one thing,…… [Read More]. Neuroplasticity This Work Provides a. For example, the individual has developed a serviceable way to tie his or her shoes they therefore do not need to learn alternative ways to do so. Yet, when the individual is faced with a broken finger he or she must learn a new way to do the task, and in doing so they change a pathway that was previously set. Now because recovery is imminent they are likely to retain the old way of doing the task but if the finger is permanently injured then the new task process must be set.

There is also some evidence that lacking major neurological damage, many of the old pathways still exist in adults as they adapt to new ways of doing things where in children they often disappear, or get used for another learning task as new pathways are formed. Yet, this is challenged in the research as well and often…… [Read More]. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning.

However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature. This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…… [Read More].

To achieve this objective I recommend instituting a task forced charged with the responsibility of working with teachers to develop a set of both short-term and long-term goals. In regard to alignment with long-term goals, our program evaluation designers and analysts need to be fully aware that their objectives must be fully attainable, fully supportive of national standards objectives, and consistent with the long-term objectives of the teachers and the school.

Goal-setting by faculty does not mean that they can do whatever they want to do. The leaders of this evaluation process must remember that in the end they have the responsibility for ensuring that all objectives are consistent, and for approving their subordinates' objectives.

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Since, the second language is an additional language after we acquire the first language, the L2 learning process can be influenced by the L1 learning process This essay will demonstrate the similarities and differences in L1 and .

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Language Acquisition essays The theory that there is a critical period for linguistic acquisition may be analysed through the indirect observation of cognitive learning to communicate. Whilst there are many human languages, all demonstrate a . Introduction Different from foreign language learning, second language acquisition (SLA) refers to “the learning of a nonnative language in the environment in which that .

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Language acquisition theories Essay  LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. The theories of language acquisition are essentially centred around the nature nurture argument. The theory that children have an innate capacity for language was created by Noam Chomsky () an American linguistic.