However, recently there are appreciable shifts towards other establishments, mainly polyclinics, points of first aid and geriatric homes. Out-patient services are slowly, but confidently replaced by hospitalization, and home visiting service by staying in geriatric homes.
In the USA there are two types of hospitals: US hospitals render a certain volume of the out-patient help in the ERs and in specialized clinics, but basically they are intended for rendering the hospitalization of the patients. A vast amount of attention is given to emergency aid. Besides, USA has a network of hospices for terminal patients with expected life expectancy of six month and less. Such hospices are usually subsidized by charitable organizations and the government.
However, in the USA, as well as in other countries, the concept of the out-patient help includes rendering of medical services without hospitalization of the patient. This makes a big share of rendering of medical aid to the population. Treatment in-home basically is made at the expense of the sisterly organizations and usually is ordered by the doctors. The private sector of out-patient medical aid is presented by personal doctors experts in internal and family medicine, pediatricians , narrow background experts, for example gastroenterologists, cardiologist, nurses and other medical personnel Roehr, Those American citizens, who do not have private insurance, are eligible for the action of such state programs as Medicare, Medicaid, and also other programs for the needy population offered by different states and local authorities.
One of the major purposes of the US government is the expansion of the sphere of action of these programs on all levels of the population and especially for those US citizens, who truly need them. For example, the Tricare program is a program for the veterans and their families. In the federal government has introduced the program of the state insurance for children from families that have an income which is higher than the Medicaid admission rate but nevertheless is not sufficient in order to purchase insurance Mahar, By this program has helped millions of children, but in many states it has already faced the problem of insufficient financing.
The government of the USA pays the expenses of the public health services by means of two basic programs — Medicaid and Medicare. These two programs allow providing medical services which are either free of charge or at a very low cost, to poor or indigent citizens of the country. Medicaid annually provides medical aid to over 40 million Americans with low level of incomes, and Medicare provides medical aid to a similar amount of elderly patients and people with limited physical possibilities Roehr, Medicare is a famous insurance state program for senior people who are older than 65 years which was implemented in Before its implementation almost the half of the elderly population of the United States did not obtain the required volume of medical services.
This program coordinates the insurance of all the American citizens who are older than 65 years old and also of those citizens, who are approaching this age and have serious health pathologies. This insurance program covers medical aid during acute conditions right up to hospitalization, various diagnostic procedures, medical services at home and short stay in geriatric homes.
Besides, patients can receive some preventive services, for example vaccination against hepatitis B, flu, pneumococcus and other. Such services as long hospitalization, nurse visiting service, hearing aids and prescription drugs are not covered by this program.
Medicare is a rather effective program. It is partially financed from the special tax on workers: The other Medicare part is financed from the general proceeds of surtax. The Medicaid state program was introduced in and is aimed at insuring American citizens from low-income families. Elderly people, people with severe injuries, invalids, pregnant women and children are also eligible for this program.
Medicaid deals with five basic services: This program pays for geriatric homes for aged people who require permanent care and cannot do anything without outside help. Staying in such establishments is very expensive: Patients in geriatric homes get the largest portion of the Medicaid money Cunningham, The Medicaid program is financed both by the federal government and the states. The federal government pays the share of the Medicaid expenses from the proceeds from the general tax.
That makes approximately half of all the expenses and the rest is paid by the government of each state. Since then, each state of the country submits to the federal government a plan of the required medical services for different groups of the state population covered by Medicaid. After the approval of this plan the states began to use federal money along with their own incomes for financing medical services.
There is a different Medicaid program in each state which converts this program into a system that is difficult to manage. The insurance model provides division of financial risks according to which, each individual or its employer brings the established monthly payment Wangsness, Such mechanism of division of means frequently allows paying a full spectrum of necessary medical services.
Nevertheless, sometimes it is necessary to pay a certain sum for rendered services — the so-called franchise, or to pay extra for each given procedure Mahar, This enables the patient to continue their care at a level which is most appropriate for them.
Items reviewed for discharge planning include but are not limited to therapies, medication needs, living arrangements and identification of specific goals. A few of the options that are available for persons being discharged from an acute care hospital can include home health care, assisted living facilities, long term care or hospice.
Alternatives for home care can meet both the medical and non-medical needs of a patient. These services are provided to patients and their families in their home or place of residence. Numerous alternatives are available for persons seeking health care at home. With transportable technologies such as durable medical equipment, oxygen supply and intravenous fluids there are countless possibilities for treatment within the home setting.
This has allowed for home care to quickly become an essential component of the health c! In a home health care situation the primary care giver is usually not the physician. The physician is communicated with by phone and with documentation from the caregivers.
Although, the original order to begin home care must be initiated by the physician if skilled care is to be obtained. This coverage must meet specific criteria, but it can be a relief to family members to know that their loved ones can be taken care of at home without worrying about the expenses.
This can include items such as meal and medication delivery, a percentage of necessary durable medical equipment, personal care and homemaker services. Health care services that are not included can become quite numerous. It is often difficult for family members to understand why specific services are not covered especially when they appear to be necessary for the care of the patient.
These costs can add up quite quickly and the impact of the cost can become quite distressing for family members and patients on a limited budget. In these cases a Social Worker is usually provided to help the patient and family explore other avenues which may enable them to cover their health care costs. Assisted Living Assisted living is an arrangement to residents of a facility that enables them to complete certain daily activities while remaining independent.
The services provided enable the resident to achieve maximum function of their activities of daily living. The services are unskilled and non-specialized personnel provide the activities essential to the care of the resident. These services help assist the aged, blind, disabled, and other functionally limited individuals with necessary daily activities which they require help with or are unable to perform on their own.
An example of some of the services which may be available are light housekeeping, meal preparation, medication reminders and personal care. The personal care does not include specific health oriented services which would require the services of a certified or licensed professional.
The goal of an assisted living facility is to have the residents feel independent within their own home. Currently there is some controversy surrounding the different types of assisted living facilities. In Michigan facilities termed assisted living have no real legal meaning and are not required to be licensed under this name. Unfortunately many facilities are misleading as to what level of care they are providing. Both the government and national organizations are currently addressing this issue.
My own experience with an assisted living facility has been quite good. Formerly my grandmother was a resident of an assisted living facility. The facility was specifically built for seniors and was that of an apartment like structure. The facility provided social and recreational activities on a continual basis.
There was also transportation service available for residents who wished to use it. My grandmother thoroughly enjoyed living in an assisted living facility where she had the opportunity to make numerous friends, participate in activities and remain independent.
The long-term care facility can be either hospital-based or freestanding.
Healthcare essaysAmerica has a highly developed health care system, which is available to all people. Although it can be very complex and frustrating at times it has come a long way from the health care organizations of yesterday. Previously most health care facilities were a place where the sick we.
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