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Types of Sampling Methods and Techniques in Research

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❶A public opinion pollster wants to know the percentage of voters that favor a flat-rate income tax.

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Probability vs. Non-Probability Samples
Population Parameter vs. Sample Statistic

The numbers are placed in a bowl and thoroughly mixed. Then, a blind-folded researcher selects n numbers. Population members having the selected numbers are included in the sample. As a example, suppose we conduct a national survey. We might divide the population into groups or strata, based on geography - north, east, south, and west. Then, within each stratum, we might randomly select survey respondents. Note the difference between cluster sampling and stratified sampling.

With stratified sampling, the sample includes elements from each stratum. With cluster sampling, in contrast, the sample includes elements only from sampled clusters. For example, in Stage 1, we might use cluster sampling to choose clusters from a population. Then, in Stage 2, we might use simple random sampling to select a subset of elements from each chosen cluster for the final sample. This method is different from simple random sampling since every possible sample of n elements is not equally likely.

An auto analyst is conducting a satisfaction survey, sampling from a list of 10, new car buyers. The analyst selects a sample of car buyers, by randomly sampling buyers of each brand. A Yes, because each buyer in the sample was randomly sampled. B Yes, because each buyer in the sample had an equal chance of being sampled. C Yes, because car buyers of every brand were equally represented in the sample.

D No, because every possible buyer sample did not have an equal chance of being chosen. E No, because the population consisted of purchasers of four different brands of car. The correct answer is D. A simple random sample requires that every sample of size n in this problem, n is equal to has an equal chance of being selected. In this problem, there was a percent chance that the sample would include purchasers of each brand of car.

There was zero percent chance that the sample would include, for example, 99 Ford buyers, Honda buyers, Toyota buyers, and GM buyers. Thus, all possible samples of size did not have an equal chance of being selected; so this cannot be a simple random sample.

The fact that each buyer in the sample was randomly sampled is a necessary condition for a simple random sample, but it is not sufficient.

Similarly, the fact that each buyer in the sample had an equal chance of being selected is characteristic of a simple random sample, but it is not sufficient. This technique is known as one of the easiest, cheapest and least time-consuming types of sampling methods. Quota sampling methodology aims to create a sample where the groups e.

The population is divided into groups also called strata and the samples are gathered from each group to meet a quota. Judgmental sampling is a sampling methodology where the researcher selects the units of the sample based on their knowledge. This type of sampling methods is also famous as purposive sampling or authoritative sampling. In this method, units are selected for the sample on the basis of a professional judgment that the units have the required characteristics to be representatives of the population.

Judgmental sampling design is used mainly when a restricted number of people possess the characteristics of interest. It is a common method of gathering information from a very specific group of individuals.

It is a methodology where researcher recruits other individuals for the study. This method is used only when the population is very hard-to-reach. For example, these include populations such as working prostitutes, current heroin users, people with drug addicts, and etc.

The key downside of a snowball sample is that it is not very representative of the population. Sampling can be a confusing activity for marketing managers carrying out research projects. By knowing and understanding some basic information about the different types of sampling methods and designs, you can be aware of their advantages and disadvantages. The two main sampling methods probability sampling and non-probability sampling has their specific place in the research industry.

In the real research world, the official marketing and statistical agencies prefer probability-based samples. While it would always be good to perform a probability-based sampling, sometimes other factors have to be considered such as cost, time, and availability.

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On this page you will learn: The various types of sampling methods: Probability and non-probability sampling. What is a population? What is a sample? There are two basic types of sampling methods: Probability sampling Non-probability sampling. What is probability sampling? Comparatively easier method of sampling Lesser degree of judgment High level of reliability of research findings High accuracy of sampling error estimation Can be done even by non-technical individuals The absence of both systematic and sampling bias.

Monotonous work Chances of selecting specific class of samples only Higher complexity Can be more expensive and time-consuming. What is non-probability sampling? When a respondent refuses to participate, he may be replaced by another individual who wants to give information. Less expensive Very cost and time effective. Easy to use types of sampling methods. The researcher interviews individuals who are easily accessible and available.

It means the possibility of gathering valuable data is reduced. Impossible to estimate how well the researcher representing the population. Excessive dependence on the judgment. Bias arises when selecting sample units. The correctness of data is less certain. Focuses on simplicity instead of effectiveness.


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Sampling Methods. Sampling and types of sampling methods commonly used in quantitative research are discussed in the following module. Learning Objectives: Define sampling and randomization. Explain probability and non-probability sampling and describes the different types of each.

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Multistage Sampling (in which some of the methods above are combined in stages) Of the five methods listed above, students have the most trouble distinguishing between stratified sampling and cluster sampling.

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It means the stratified sampling method is very appropriate when the population is heterogeneous. Stratified sampling is a valuable type of sampling methods because it captures key population characteristics in the sample. In addition, stratified sampling design leads to increased statistical efficiency. The best sampling is probability sampling, because it increases the likelihood of obtaining samples that are representative of the population. Probability sampling (Representative samples) Probability samples are selected in such a .

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Social research is a scientific method to understand human behavior which is done by sending out surveys to a targeted sample. There are two basic types of sampling for social research, Probability, and Non-probability sampling. These sampling types are divided on the basis of the selection of members and are implemented in different . There are many methods of sampling when doing research. This guide can help you choose which method to use. Simple random sampling is the ideal, but researchers seldom have the luxury of time or money to access the whole population, so many compromises often have to be made.