Large customers hope to influence their vendors to provide specific product differences that would make them unique in the marketplace, thus giving them a competitive advantage. The proliferation of microcomputer technology has made it possible to change functionality of a product by introducing new software programming.
Most customers are unaware of the intricacies of software programming, testing and controls. Their perception is that software development is quick and easy, with little costs as compared to hardware development. My company on the other hand has multiple large customers, each hoping to influence our product development and time to market. Each of these customers wants different product features that will make them unique in the marketplace. Our engineers are detailed oriented and prefer to layout a program of design and delivery based on the goals of senior management and marketing direction.
Introducing new requirements in the middle of product development disrupts their orderly processes, increases cost, and causes tension internally between sales, marketing, and engineering. If the company is primarily sales driven, the likelihood that engineering will have to adjust their plans is high. Engineering driven companies on the other hand, many be more staunch in their stance and maintain the existing development schedule. Management must decide whether the proposed changes to the product adds value long term, and is the customer willing to pay for the additional feature development short term.
Managers from some cultures are less flexible because it is a sign of weakness. A company never wants to discourage customer feedback on features because it helps to set practical implementations of the product that design engineers may never think of.
In addition, if the product diverges to far from what the majority of customers need the product will no longer be viable in the market. Let us assume that the customer requests for product changes have received approval. We now look at cost versus quality trade-offs that will ultimately influence the final product. Adding features to the product development requires additional resources.
In software development, additional employees with specific programming language expertise may be required. It will also influence how the software is tested. Testing the software will require additional time and possibly additional automated test equipment. Additional lines of code may require more memory in the hardware to store the increased code.
Each of these factors adds cost to the product and needs carefully evaluation prior to development. The addition of new features adds additional work, which effects time to market.
Management will need to evaluate the trade-offs of missing the original schedule versus added costs. Missing the original schedule will influence other customers who are counting on our company to help them meet their goals. These are difficult decisions because they affect more than the requesting customer and our company. This decision will affect several more companies that do business with us. Meeting the original schedule means that we must compress the additional work.
Management can address this issue by employing more people or demanding longer work hours from existing employees. This aspect is where most of the quality issues will show up. New employees are unknown commodities that require training and additional supervision.
Longer work hours for current employees create additional emotional stress, lack of focus, and possibly company resentment. Crosby in project management in That proceeds are much more than spending for the quality is underlined in this book. Idea of that profitability is obtained by reducing weaknesses and the poor quality is dominant.
In the following years, quality management was evaluated by Edwards Deming as total quality management. The method that began to be used in the health system has spread to other industries. Total quality management study on the production of prefabricated concrete sector were investigated and proposed within the scope of this study.
To assist enhancement of sterility assurance programmes, this article highlights the main changes in the new draft Annex 1. In developing the draft, the European Medicines Agency made considerable efforts to integrate new concepts and In developing the draft, the European Medicines Agency made considerable efforts to integrate new concepts and facilitate the introduction and implementation of innovative technologies. To be proactive, it is advised that existing sterility assurance programmes be assessed against the changes to provide a gap assessment to understand the actions and resources required to align with the proposed new guidance.
European Food and History th Centuries. In projects developed in the area of food history and in the different symposia organised by ICREFH in the past 30 years, the history of the senses has remained in the background. However, the senses of smell, touch, sight, hearing, and However, the senses of smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste are appealed to when we deal with the production of foods for consumption.
The use of the senses, which is quotidian, but equally ephemeral, seems to be outside of the written scholarship produced by historians. The creation, by elites, of taste, of fashion, of " bon gout " , are familiar areas of discussion today.
This symposium, which will be presented for the 30th anniversary of ICREFH, proposes moving forward in our analysis of this area by drawing on recent research. Each sense can be a separate topic of historical research. However, separating each sense activated by food presents a somewhat impoverished image.
In fact, all the senses are at work when we are eating. Thus, let us take them as a whole so as to seize a " balance of the senses " Corbin , a rapport among them which can appear in the form of a hierarchy or of a balance.
This ensemble is produced, it grows, it transforms, and then it sometimes disappears. Actually, the enhancement of taste indicates a constructed and deliberate hierarchical organization. In the same way, a crunch activates our sense of hearing initially, with the other senses staying in the background.
We shall approach the history of food and the senses by means of an event, a product, a particular source a family journal, a cookery book Three main themes have been adopted, but the organizing committee is open to other proposals: In this time period how was specific vocabulary constructed e.
Some words disappear or change their meaning. Did the combination of the senses and food play a part in the creation of nations or of nationalism national dishes and the senses that are particularly connected to them. Can we distinguish between the senses developed at home, and those developed outside of the home? Do there exist places of intensity for the senses the kitchen, for example? The analogy between body odours or social position and certain dishes and their odours should perhaps be explored: We can envisage the roles of regulations, European or national, of specific trades doctors, cooks… , hygiene and the senses, the media: How and why do breeding and the modes of culture transform the smell, the taste, the colour and the texture of products?
Do the techniques of cutting and cooking appeal to the senses? What are the results, the reception? Lessons from Total Quality Management.
The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of implementing a Quality Management System QMS in a research laboratory in order to improve the management of risks specific to research programmes and to increase the reliability of The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of implementing a Quality Management System QMS in a research laboratory in order to improve the management of risks specific to research programmes and to increase the reliability of results.
This paper also presents experience gained from feedback following the implementation of the Quality process in a research laboratory at INRA, the French National Institute for Agronomic Research and details the various challenges encountered and solutions proposed to help achieve smoother adoption of a QMS process.
Practical examples illustrate the benefits and improvements observed in the laboratory. They should lead by demonstrating, communicating, and reinforcing the quality statements.
As a rule of thumb, they should spend about one third of their time on quality. A very important role of senior managers is listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups, and surveys. This information is translated into core values and process improvement projects.
Another very important role is communication. In addition to internal efforts, there must be external activities with customers and suppliers, the media, advertising in trade magazines, and interaction with the quality community. By following the preceding suggestions, senior managers should be able to drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change, and, in general, change the culture.
Only with the involvement of senior management can TQM be a success. The most important asset of any organization is its customers. Customers that are satisfied will increase in number, buy more, and buy more frequently.
Satisfied customers also pay their bills promptly, which greatly improves cash flow the lifeblood of any organization. Increasingly, manufacturing and service organizations are using customer satisfaction as the measure of quality. The importance of customer satisfaction is not only due to national competition but also due to worldwide competition.
Since customer satisfaction is hard to measure, the measurement often is not precise. As with most attitudes, there is variability among people, and often within the same person at different times. Often, due to the difficulty of measuring feelings, customer satisfaction strategies are developed around clearly stated, logical customer opinions, and the emotional issues of a purchase are disregarded.
This can be a costly mistake. Customer satisfaction should not be viewed in a vacuum. For example, a customer may be satisfied with a product or service and therefore rate the product or service highly in a survey, and yet that same customer may buy another product or service. The value customers place on one product compared to another may be a better indicator of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty can be sustained only by maintaining a favorable comparison when compared with competitors.
As mentioned before customer satisfaction is not a simple concept to understand or to measure. Involving employees, empowering them and bringing them into the decision making process provides the opportunity for continuous process improvement.
The untapped ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Competition is so fierce that it would be unwise not to use every available tool. Employee involvement improves quality and increases productivity, because. Quality based organizations should strive to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes. Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, we must continually strive for its attainment.
It is an effective improvement technique. The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated. First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan does it.
Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different? Using the knowledge learned, develop an improved plan and repeat the cycle. The PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem solving method discussed in the next section. The problem solving method also called the scientific method has many variations depending, to some extent, on the use; however, they are all similar. The phases are integrated because each phase is dependent upon the previous phase.
Continuous process improvement is the objective, and these phases are the framework to achieve that objective. The objective of this phase is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement. It consists of three parts: Problems can be identified from a variety of inputs.
One of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award core values is managing by fact rather than by gut feeling. Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation.
The ship would most likely end up traveling in circles, as would an organization. Measures play a vital part in the success or failure of an organization. Performance measures are used to achieve one or more of the following seven objectives:. The quality council has the overall responsibility for the performance measures.
It ensures that all the measures are integrated into a total system of measures. To develop the system, the quality council will obtain appropriate information from all of the stall holders. They will utilize the core values, goals, mission, and vision statements as well as the objectives and criteria given above.
With this information, the strategic measurement system is created. An example of a system that emphasizes percent improvement might contain the functions and metrics as given below:.
To involve employees in productivity and efficiency improvement activities, a team-based environment must be developed in which they can participate actively in improving their process, product, or service performance. One such employee participation program is quality control circles QCCs. QC-circle activities are usually directed towards improvements in the workplace. They focus on such areas as-.
The vast majority Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. It is a tool for continuous improvement. Benchmarking is an increasingly popular tool.
These standards, sfiptdate that quality goals and objectives be based on competitive products and benchmarking, both inside and outside the automotive industry. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award similarly requires that applicants benchmark external organizations. Benchmarking is the systematic search for best practices, innovative ideas, and highly effective operating procedures.
Benchmarking considers the experience of others and uses it. Indeed, it is the common sense proposition to learn from others what they do right and then imitate it to avoid reinventing the wheel.
Benchmarking is not new and indeed has been around for a long time. In fact, in the s, Francis Lowell, a New England. Benchmarking is a tool to achieve business and competitive objectives.
It is power and extremely effective when used for the right reasons and aligned with organization strategy. It is not a panacea that can replace all other quality efforts or management processes. Organizations must still decide which markets to serve and determine the strengths that will enable them to gain competitive advantage. Benchmarking is one tool to help organizations develop those strengths and reduce weaknesses.
By definition, benchmarking requires an external orientation, which is critical in a world where the competition can easily be on the other side of the globe. An external outlook greatly reduces the chance of being caught unaware by competition. Benchmarking can notify the organization if it has fallen behind the competition or failed to take advantage of important operating improvements developed elsewhere.
In short, benchmarking can inspire managers and organizations to compete. When personnel are aware of the external information, they are usually much more motivated to attain the goals and objectives. Also, it is hard to argue that an objective is impossible when it can be shown that another organization has already achieved it. Benchmarking is time and cost efficient because the process involves imitation and adaptation rather than pure invention.
Benchmarking partners provide a working model of an improved process, which reduces some of the planning, testing, and prototyping effort. As the old saying goes, Why reinvent the wheel? The primary weakness of benchmarking, however, is the fact that best in class performance is a moving target.
For example, new technology can create quantum leap performance improvements, such as the use of electronic data interchange EDI. Automobile makers no longer use paper to purchase parts from suppliers. Wall Mart uses bar code scanners and satellite data transmission to restock its stores, often in a matter of hours.
These applications of EDI save tens of thousands of worker hours and whole forests of trees, as well as helping to meet customer requirements. For functions that are critical to the business mission, organizations must continue to innovate as well as imitate.
Benchmarking enhances innovation by requiring organizations to constantly scan the external environment and to use the information obtained to improve the process. Potentially useful technological breakthroughs can be located and adopted early.
Organizations that benchmark, adapt the process to best fit their own needs and culture. Although the number of steps in the process may vary from organization to organization, the following six steps contain the core techniques. Its mandate is to promote the development of international standards to facilitate the exchange of goods and services worldwide.
ISO is composed of more than 90 member countries. The ISO Technical Committee TC developed a series of international standards for quality systems, which were first published in new standards ISO , , and were intended to be advisory and were developed for use in two party contractual situations and internal auditing.
Abstract- Total quality Management as a philosophy seeking to integrate all organizational functions in all areas of productions and services become an important attractive research field. It encourage Researchers to address many topics related to Total Quality management and Continuous improvements. Each has his own approach.
RESEARCH PAPER Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational total quality management (TQM) and organisational characteristics (size, type of industry, type of ownership, and degree of innovation) in a newly industrialised country in South East Asia. Vietnam has become the th member of the World.
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