Also the grid was added to counting chambers. Chantemesse and Widal, , prepared the first differential medium using glucose and lactose peptone water to differentiate E.
After that a Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato developed a test for indole production to further aid in the differentiation of these species. In , Wurtz of Paris introduced the use of indicators in the medium to detect acid production. Pasteur later developed the preparations from the causative agents of chicken cholera showing the alteration of the virulence and the development of a vaccine produced by laboratory manipulation.
Pasteur and his colleagues, Emile Roux, and Chamber-land, had further successes using attenuated anthrax bacilli. Also the art of microbial toxonomy moved from a purely morphological basis to one based on metabolic characteistics. The reclassification of species with molecular methods in use allowed grouping of organisms according to their genetic make up. The processes of bacterial transformation and mutation were the basis for determining that all genetic information of cells is coded for by DNA.
The year saw the discovery of Penicillin by Alexander Flemming. Howard Florey associated driven by the intense need of Second World War , purified it in and it became commercially available.
It also promoted the work and search for other such antimicrobial weapons produced by soil microorganisms. Later, Streptomycin was discovered and other broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by the development of semisynthetic antibiotics. The s witnessed the development of. London County Council Laboratory Services in , led to the commercial development of dehydrated media. In , the development of the monolayer technique and that of using cytopathic effect for viral detection led to the availability of live virus vaccines.
Since then the development of antiviral chemotherapies has been a thrust area of researches in microbiology. In the entire genome sequencing was completed for Haemophilus influezae. Microbiology is a mutidisciplinary subject as the microbes are not only playing useful role in nature through their links in bio-geochemical cycles, symbiotic relationship, in maintaining soil fertility, in bio-remediation, also as plant pathogens, microbes in biotechnology and as amodel organisms for biochemical molecular and genetic processes but are also providing homogenous experimental material relatively quickly.
As a result of their link to several branches of science many branches of microbiology can be identified and are still growing……. It encompasses the uses of a variety of microbes in industrial processes. Initially they were being used for industrial fermentation and waste water treatment.
As today industry is linked to biotechnology, several new industrial applications have been found for a variety of microbes. It is sometimes also studied as microbial biotechnology and is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses or plant and animal cells to create useful products or services.
Areas of industrial microbiology include quality assurance for the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. This branch of microbiology deals with the scientific study of pathogenic microbes, the diseases they cause, their mode of survival in environment and their hosts including life-cycle ; their diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In fact, as early as Varo and Columella in the first century BC had postulated that the diseases were caused by invisible beings animalia minuta.
Von Plenciz had put forth the idea that each disease was caused by a separate agent. This branch deals with microbes having an impact on agriculture and food chains. Both, the harmful microbes causing plant diseases as well as useful microbes e. Certain raminants also carry a mixture of complex bacteria that enable the animal to extract sufficient nutrient from a diet of grasses. Future research in microbial ecology will help to determine in preserving a balance in mirobial communities that favour agriculture.
This branch includes the study of composition and physiology of microbial communities of the environment. It also deals with the activities of microbial entities, their interactions among themselves and with maroorganisms. Adhesion, biofilm formation, global element cycles, biogeochemical processes and microbial life in extremes of environment or unexplored environs all fall in its preview. As the microorganisms are ubiquitous present almost everywhere food and milk are no exceptions.
Hence the microbes are studied from the viewpoint that they e. And thus how they can cause spoilage, prevent spoilage through fermentation or can be the cause of human illness, all comes under the realm of this branch of microbiology.
It is a thrust area of microbiology these days, as more and more food items are being packaged including milk and its products for later use. Bio-engineering, including recombinant genetic technology of the 21 st century is the science upon which all biotechnological applications are based. It combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, food sciences, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, microbiology, cell biology and all are interrelated to electronics, information technology and robotics.
The current science of bacteriology includes the study of both domains of prokaryotic cells the Bacteria, and Eucarya. It is the study of viruses, complexes of nucleic acids and proteins that have the capacity for replication in animal, plant or bacterial cells. To replicate, the viruses use their genomes DNA or RNA or of the host cells and cause changes in cells, particularly its antigenicity and may cause several diseases in plants and animals is all covered under this branch.
This branch deals with the biota that inhabits the soil and the processes they mediate. As the soil is a complex environment, colonized by an immense variety of microorganisms, the soil microbiology focuses on soil viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and protozoa, but traditionally it has also included investigations of soil animals such as nematodes, mites and other arthropods.
Modem soil microbiology represents an integration of microbiology with the concepts of soil science, chemistry and ecology to understand the functions of microorganism in the soil environment. This branch deals with the study of microbial flora of various types of sewage. The sewage may, depending upon source, can contain harmless E.
This branch studies their qualitative as well as quantitative details and ways to combat them following various treatment processes. It deals with the study of various fungi. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and around species are shown to be pathogenic for man. It studies their morphology, taxonomy, biosystematics, distribution, propagation, and several mycotic diseases they cause including hypersensitivity, mycotoxicoses, mycetismus and other infections and their remedies.
Earlier much in use, this branch is the study of protozoa motile and heterotrophic protists. Protozoa-despite their small size and unicellularness offer complex and unique biological features. They also serve as experimental models in a variety of cellular, molecular, biochemical and ecological researches.
One of the applied sub-branches of this old branch is medical protozoology covering protozoa infecting humans. It covers life-cycles, morphological features, host-parasite interactions, geographical distributions, reservoir hosts, method of transmission and control, pathology, immunological aspects, diagnosis and remedies are all included in it.
It covers the study of microorganisms and their activities in natural water. As the natural waters include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries and oceans, it initially started covering all of them.
Is it just chemical, or is there more going on? Our DNA is our coding. It makes us who we are. But what is it? Can we manipulate it? Can we change it? What causes defects in our cells and DNA? How does one defect affect another, and can we fix them? All it takes it one bad dose of the flu virus and we could all be wiped out in a month. So what causes epidemics and how can we stop them? What makes one person attracted to another? Why do some people feel asexual? What is it that makes someone homosexual, bisexual, or pansexual?
All these questions are important, so get working on them. The above academic paper writing guides are created by our internal team of professional essay and dissertation writers. Soil Texture refers to the particle sizes composing the soil. These particles are classified as gravel, sand, silt and clay in decreasing order of size. Four textural types are recognised.
The smallest structural units of matter living as well as nonliving are subatomic particles. The next larger units are atoms, each of which consists of subatomic particles.
Atoms in turn form still more complex combinations called chemical compounds molecules. Chemical compounds are variously joined together as even more elaborate units or complexes of compounds macro-molecules. The fresh-water of both kinds-lentic and lotic, has low percentage of dissolved salts and is subjected to the influence of a wide array of physical and chemical factors.
The rise and fall of these factors very frequently affect the fauna, altering their number and diversity. Some of the important factors of fresh-water environment are following: Pressure, Density and Buoyancy: Moving-water or lotic ecosystems include rivers, streams, and related environments. They vary from raging torrents and waterfalls to rivers whose flow is so smooth as to be almost unnoticeable. A given river varies considerably over its length, as it change.
There are two types of biochemical cycles, the gaseous and the sedimentary. In gaseous cycles the main reservoir of nutrients is the atmosphere and the ocean. In sedimentary cycles the main reservoir is the soil and the sedimentary and other rocks of the earth's crust. Both involve bionic and abionic agents, both are driven by the flow of energy and both are tied to the water cycle. Organisms can respond to environmental stress in such a way that their tolerance zones may change. The genetic changes that occur during the evolution of the species because of mutation and natural selection are called adaptations.
Presumably, each species is fairly well adapted or fit, if it has been in its particular environ-ment for many generations. The range of tolerance of a species may b. Though two popula-tions cannot coexist in a given habitat with precisely the same niche, it is highly probable that the niches of different populations will show varying degrees of overlap.
This occurs when two organi-sms use the same resource, such as food. Thus the concept of the niche is clo-sely associated with the concept of competitive exclusion and competitive relationships among spices. Predation is a form of disoperation, at least in point of im-mediate effects, since one animal kills another animal or plant for food Like parasitism, predation is important in community dyna-mics but both differ in the point that a predator tends to be large than its and it catches its prey from without, while a parasite is smaller than its host and consumes it from within.
The trend of increasing complexity and organisation from lower level toward higher one produces following new properties: One property which arises at each new higher level of organisation is united, integrated function. Disunited structure means independent function and by extension, competition; while united structure means joint function and. All the living entities of an ecosystem form a single biotic component, the community. All the organisms of a community live together, share same habitat and influence each other's life directly or indirectly.
Various vital life processes such as growth, nutrition, reproduction and distribution depend very much upon the interac-tions between the individuals of same species intra specific inter. Through mutation and introgression followed by selection, modification of gene frequencies genetic drift and recombination, many species populations come to be composed of a number of freely interbreeding biotypes or races, each adapted to a particular combination of parameters in the habitat.
Such a species is called polytypic species. When the component populations of a polytypic species ar. An evident unit of life in nature is the individual organism. Linguistically as well as biologically, the root of the word 'organism' is organisation: Each kind of living organism possesses a certain degree of organisation which enables them to perform different life activities.
In fact, close examination of the any aspect of the living world reveals that everyth. Biological motives originate from our biological make up. Biological motives can arise due to: There are three theories th.
Jun 11, · 20 Topics For Essay On Microbiology. April 14, by admin Essay Topics. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Google+ 0 Viber WhatsApp. Medical Microbiology/clinical biology. The study of microbes in human diseases is known as medical microbiology or clinical microbiology. The branch includes the study of pathogens. The study also .
Microbiology Essay Topics List Microorganisms are everywhere, almost every natural surface is colonized by microbes, from the body to ocean. Most microorganisms are harmless to human; you swallow millions of microbes every day with no ill effect.
Paper Topics for Microbiology: Bacteria and Viruses. You may want to start your paper by choosing a specific bacterium, Archean, or virus and subsequently focus to something you find particularly interesting about that organism. May 02, · Biology is an interesting topic because you are going to a remote area to explore Mother Nature’s gift to the community be experiencing remote natural wonders. In this way, research practice becomes productive if you have successfully found the solution of your investigative research process.
A common way of how to write a biology essay body is by using at least three paragraphs. The biology essay tips need to be relevant to the research question being discussed. The points should also give assertion to the reader. May 18, · Microbiology is the study of microbes that are practically invisible to the human eye. Although microbes are usually associated with causing and aiding disease, they are essential organisms in the ecological world.