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According to Fowler a low response rate reduces the sample size and may bias the results of the study. Ary et al ; observes that in questionnaires personal contact is missing and people are more likely to refuse to cooperate. The illiterate people are left out in a questionnaire hence this reduces the size and diversity of the sample. Ary et al argued that in a questionnaire respondents may misinterpret the question and in some cases the items may not have the same meaning to all respondents.

This scenario is worsened by the fact that there is no room for probing and clarifications for additional details. According to Ary etal a questionnaire is inadequate in understanding emotions and it is difficult to tell how truthful a respondent is. Good questions are hard to write and they take considerable time to develop.

The interviewer used face to face interviews. Mahlase says, an interview refers to a situation in which answers are directly drawn out from the respondents by an interview and usually records responses.

The researcher used structured interview guide. The interview enabled the researcher to gather comparable data in surrounding secondary schools under study. There is room for clarification since questions can be repeated or their meanings explained. The interviewer can also press for relevant additional information when a response seems incomplete or not entirely relevant.

In an interview the interviewer has control over the order in which the questions are considered since in some cases it is important for the respondents not to know the nature of later questions because their responses to earlier questions may influence earlier responses.

Interviews supply large volumes of in depth data in a short space of time. They may say want they think the interviewer wants to hear. The interviews are prone to interviewer bias since the interviewer may reward, correct or encourage responses that fit his or her expectations Ary et al through verbal and nonverbal cues.

In an interview there is no anonymity hence the respondents might fail to cooperate fully for fear of victimization. An interview may seem intrusive to the respondent. It carefully specifies beforehand the categories of behaviors or events under study and under what circumstances they should be assigned to those categories.

Observations are then fragmented or coded into more managerial pieces of information which are later aggregated into usable quantifiable data. Certain phenomenon can be accessed and properly understood only through observation ,for example interaction can be meaningfully assessed and understood only through observation. Croll observes that ,the presents of the researcher may influence the phenomenon itself.

In other words those people under study may change their activities in the presence of the researcher. At times the researcher has to wait until the appropriate event takes place ,hence the exercise will be time consuming and labor intensive. However the researcher choose this method so that she gets certain behaviors in their natural state. The targeted population was the teachers of mathematics, Heads of mathematics department, Heads of selected schools in Gokwe South central cluster and District officer of Gokwe south central cluster.

The cluster sampling technique was used to select the schools. Among the three schools chosen. Therefore a sample is part of a population.

The purposive sampling technique was adopted. Chiromo posits that ,purposive sampling is a judgemental form of sampling in which the researcher purposely selects certain groups of individuals for their relevance to the issue being studied. The researcher was interested in the Heads of the schools, Heads of the mathematics department , the teachers of mathematics and pupils learning mathematics at ordinary level.

It enables the selection of the key informants on the basis that they understand the challenges faced by teachers in the teaching of mathematics. According to Ary etal purposive sampling also known as judgment sampling, sample elements judged to be typical or representative are chosen from the population.

The assumption is that errors of judgment in the selection will counter balance one another. It is useful in attitude and opinion surveys. Three Head teachers of schools, six mathematics teachers, three heads of the mathematics department and one District officer were interviewed and thirty pupils responded to questionnaires.

The District education officer was automatically selected because of his or her responsibilities and relevance to the study. In selecting pupils for sampling, a hat method was used where by pupils were asked to write their names and put the names in a hat according to gender.

A boy was picked by the researcher at random and was asked to pick five names of girls in the hat, one at a time likewise a girl was randomly chosen to pick five names of boys in a hat and the chosen pupils were the ones representing a sample at a school.

Five girls and five boys represented a school. Re-read your assignment sheet and any information in the textbook. For example, I ask my students to choose a technology topic for a Summary, Analysis, and Response essay which asks them to research three or more perspectives on an issue. Find a Topic Idea: Look over the topic lists below to find a question that interests you. For an Exploratory paper , you will need a topic which has three or more perspectives to explore.

If you are doing a Position, Argument, or a Cause paper , you will need to know the different perspectives, but you will use your answer to the question as your thesis statement. Read about the Topic: Once you find one you like, you can learn more about that issue by looking at some of the hyperlinked articles.

You can look for more research articles at your school library or online at Google Scholar. Additionally, check science magazines for a non-technical audience like Discover, Scientific American, or Popular Scientist. Science Daily is a good website to check for breaking news and research. Choose a Question to Research: After you find a topic idea you like, write out the question and make a list of other similar issues or words you could use as keywords to research.

You can use the other questions on the topic list to help you out. You can start by looking through a search engine to see what you can find, but don't use articles that don't fit the type of authoritative sources your instructor requires. Use Links to Find Good Sources: One hint is to follow the links in articles that are written for a non-specialist that go to the original sources and research articles.

You can also use your library resources to find more academic articles. Follow my instructions in writing your essay: Here is a list of twenty starter topic ideas for research essays. See below for many more! What are the long-term effects of living in a technological world?

Are these mostly negative or positive? Are children under 12 now growing up in a different world than college-age students did? How is it different, and what does that mean for them? What is the most important new technology for solving world problems? How has social media helped solve and create problems in countries outside the U. Will governments like China continue to be able to control citizens' access to the Internet and social media?

How do social media, texting, cell phones, and the Internet make the world bigger? What are the implications of ever-increasing globalization through technology to the global economy?

Technology is changing so quickly that we are frequently using computers, software programs, and other technologies that have frustrating glitches and problems. Is there a solution? How does our experience of social interactions with other humans influence the way we interact with machines? When does it become morally wrong to genetically engineer your child?

What are new ways people can use technology to change the world? Does the Internet need controls or censorship? If so, what kind? Do digital tools make us more or less productive at work? To what extent is the development of new technologies having a negative effect? How will technology change our lives in twenty years? Should people get identity chips implanted under their skin? Should people in all countries have equal access to technological developments?

Can video gaming really help solve world problems? What are genetically modified food technologies able to do? How does this compare with traditional plant breeding methods? Should genetically modified food technologies be used to solve hunger issues? Since it is now possible to sequence human genes to find out about possible future heath risks, is that something everyone should have done? What are the advantages or disadvantages?

If people have genetic testing, who has the right to that information? Should healthcare companies and employers have access to that information? If parents have genetic information about their children, when and how should they share it with the child? What sort of genetic information should parents seek about their children and how might this influence raising that child?

Would having cars that drive themselves be a good or bad idea? How might travel in the future be different? Should information technologies and Internet availability make work from home the norm? What is the best way for infertile couples to have a child? Should research into mechanical reproduction technologies be unlimited? What do we do about frozen embryos that won't be used by the donating couple?

Should "adopting" frozen embryos be encouraged more widely? Is mechanical reproduction ethical? Is there a difference between raising adopted and birth children? How can we best take care of the problem of unwanted pregnancies?

What makes a person a mother or a father? What regulation should there be on the infertility technologies? Should health insurance plans cover infertility technologies?

An article about egg and sperm donation How important is it to have a genetic connection with your children? Do egg donors and children have rights to a relationship? Should egg and sperm donors be compensated? Is surrogate pregnancy a good way for a couple to get a baby? Is it right that surrogacy is heavily advertised to military wives? Should surrogates be used for any reason, or only for health reasons?

Should there be regulations of international surrogacy? What do we need to do in order to make organ donation a better experience for everyone involved? When is a person dead? How do we define death?

Should organ donors be given pain medications? Should we choose organ donation for ourselves and our loved ones? Do organ donors feel pain? What is the best method of organ replacement to solve the problem of a shortage of donors? What is the best way to help people who have lost a limb? Is it ethical to use tissue from animals in people? Are using embryonic stem cells necessary, or will technological innovations make these obsolete? Should more funding grants from the National Institute of Health which tend to support research projects without immediate practical applications go to practical research projects which produce direct medical help to individuals?

When considering war, should we factor in the medical costs of soldiers who will return wounded? What is the best way to help solve the problem of a rising number of people with Type 2 diabetes in the U. What is the best way to treat people with morbid obesity? Should bypass surgeries be used as a standard cure for type 2 diabetes? What is the cause of the recent increase in diabetes in the U.

How much of diabetes type 2 and obesity is genetic? How much is behavioral? Should people with obesity and diabetes or other diseases pay more for health care? Should we ban human cloning? What makes people human? How does cloning change the value of human life? How should we best solve the problem of genetic diseases? Is there a point when genetic engineering has gone too far? Who should decide the limits of how genetic engineering is used?

What is the best way to use the technologies of genetic engineering to help humans? Which genetic engineering projects should be given the most funding? Technical Experiments on Humans. Medicine, Experiments, and Human Identity Should human life be deemed more important than animal life? What is the dignity of human life and how should we observe this in medical situations?

Who decides how far medical research should go? Should there be limits to the scientific investigation on humans? Is is our DNA, our appearance, our choice, our family or our cultural environment? How important is DNA information in forming our identity? Should people get Ancestry DNA testing? Should identifying as multi-racial be more common? What is the self? Can it be found in scientific investigation? Does science have the final say about who we are? Will technology create an Inception effect where people will not be able to distinguish out-of-body from in-body experiences?

How will virtual reality technology change us? Is virtual reality the future? Should there be a limit to the research on virtual reality? What are the uses and benefits of virtual reality technologies? Is controlling brains with technology like light ethical? How important is it to find alternative treatments something other than drugs for mental illness?

What is the best way to treat mental illness? Has an increase in the use of technology affected the rise of mental illness in the U. If it were possible, should technologies be used to control drug addictions? Should we seek ways to control the brain with technologies? What are the social dangers of brain-controlling technologies? How important is it to monitor and limit our social media intake? Is addiction to technology something we should worry about?

Are the distractions of using social media negatively influencing the workplace? Has media hurt or helped family communication? What is the best way to manage technology in relationships?

What is the best way to maintain a close relationship? Is using technology in college classrooms a good or bad idea? What is the best way for educators to incorporate social media in their classrooms? What is the best way for educators to use technology to teach?

Should there be social rules about cell phone use in schools or the workplace? How are technologies changing the way people interact in the workplace? Have texting and social media damaged this generation's ability to communicate in person? Do cell phones and social media make family relationships stronger? How has texting changed the way we communicate with one another?

What are the dangers of texting? When is texting rude? Has texting made this generation less respectful of other people?

How important is this? Should there be limits to the access a university or employer has to social profiles? Should teachers have limits on social networking with students? How should professionals use Facebook or other social media?

Should there be more regulations on social media privacy? How large a role should social profiles have in hiring and other decisions?

How justifiable is it to take legal action against someone for posts on social media sites? Do more guns make people more or less safe? How much money should the U. What would happen if someone detonated a nuclear bomb today?

How should the U. Should we destroy our nuclear weapons? How has modern warfare technology changed the way we view war? Has technology made the world safer or less safe? Should drones be used in modern warfare? What is the effect of taking people out of direct combat with the enemy? Does an online format cause readers to skim rather than fully digest information? Is being able to find information quickly online a good or bad thing? How do we gauge intelligence?

How is Google search changing us? How should we change teaching to incorporate new technologies? How important is it that schools teach using iPads, Smart Boards, social media, and other new technologies? Is there an intelligence developed through conventional reading and research which is being lost in the digital age? If Google prefers their own brand of information, are we getting the best when we search?

Are blogs better than books? Do schools and parents need to encourage or discourage media use? How is reading digitally different than reading print? Is the digital generation going to be smarter or dumber? Is Google affecting the attention span of young people? Is using technology for entertainment a bad thing? Information Storage see videos How can storing information on DNA create new information system technologies?

Are there any ethical objections to using DNA for storage? Is unlimited data storage a good thing? How can humans manage these large amounts of information?

Should we worry about the fact that the line between the human brain and a computer is getting blurred? Is it a problem that computers will soon be able to think? Should we build robots to do many of the tasks people don't like to do? How relevant is the Wall-E scenario to our future? What will be the consequences of everything moving into the cloud?

Can reinforcement learning teach robots to be more intelligent and more like humans? Since open-source is becoming more of a trend in computer science, how can computer programmers be able to protect a device? How will big data and bioinformatics change biology? What is machine learning? How important is it? Where will machine learning have the most impact? How will virtualization change entertainment?

How will virtual reality change education? Is virtual reality a good or bad thing? What is the next level for the Internet? How can the Internet be changed to make it better?

If computers take over many of our tasks, what will humans do? Which computer languages are going to be most important in the future? If there is a new computer language to be invented, what does it need to do to be better than the languages we now have? How are robots changing health care? These technology research topics represent arguable claims or ideas people don't agree on.

Arguable claims make good research topics because there are several points of view that you can investigate. I think the question of how If you are critiquing this practice, you might want to consider: Is human chip implantation an invasion of privacy?

Should you volunteer to get a microchip? What is the role of Is modern technology helping humans be more efficient or lazier? You could combine these ideas with one of the questions below: How are young people's relationships changing because of social media?

Does social media interfere or help face-to-face communication? Here are some other topic Here are some ideas: Will personal devices improve the productivity of students at school? Should schools provide personal devices or should students bring them from home? How do personal devices affect student productivity? How do personal devices affect the productivity of educators? How to personal electronic devices affect the modern classroom?

How are cell phones negatively affecting our lives? To what extent do cell phones make teens lives worse? How is having a computer making a business person's life harder? How does email make the workplace less efficient? What effect does social media have on the workplace? What do you think of "When will we have robots? Here are some possibilities: Will robots ever be a part of the family? Will robots take over most human jobs in factories? What industries and jobs are most likely to be done by robots in the future?

Will robots replace humans as caretakers of the young and old? Will robots become as intelligent as humans? Are human-like robotic androids a real possibility in the future? Will robots ever be able to do everything humans can do?

When will the average person have a personal robot? Are devices like "robotic vacuum cleaners" and Alexa really robots? What is a robot? Here are some other questions on this topic: Is it possible to bring back extinct animals? Why do scientists want to bring back extinct animals? Are movie scenarios like "Jurrasic Park" really possible? Should humans bring back extinct animals?

Is it ethical for humans to re-create extinct animals just to study them? What are the possible dangers in bringing ancient DNA back to life? Here are some other possible questions on the same topic: What is the impact of digital advertising in developing countries? How can small businesses use digital advertising effectively?

What types of digital advertising are most successful in developing countries? Is the correlation between mathematics and music a legitimate research project? Here are some ways to formulate that question: What is the relationship between mathematics and music? Is there a link between mathematics and music? Should students try to study both math and music in college? What do you think of the research paper topic "Are memes funny or hurtful?

Here are some other ways to word that idea, along with a few other questions on that topic: When are memes useful? Do memes serve an important social purpose? Does satire in social media work differently than satire in print media?

Do memes provide an important social function on the internet? How are memes a part of our modern art history? How do memes reflect postmodernism? How can film theory apply to memes? Here are some other questions about robots and healthcare: How can doctors save time by using robots? Can robots effectively help doctors give better health care in remote areas?

What is the best use of robots in healthcare? Will robots eventually replace doctors? Is robotic surgery better?

Can the use of iPad as a tool enhance children's social interactive skills? Here are other topics on that subject: How are schools effectively using iPads in the classroom? Will using iPads in schools help or hurt children's social skills? Can iPads help create a more interactive classroom environment? What type of military technology is going to change warfare the most in the future? What is the long-term impact of military drone technology?

What will be the long-term impact of the nuclear capabilities of North Korea? How has advancement of military technology impacted the wars in the Middle East? I really enjoy reading articles on your site Can you suggest some educational based ICT topics for me. Robert, you can try: How can virtual reality help people in their daily lives? Is virtual reality only for games and entertainment, or does it have practical uses?

Can you please help me with virtual reality research questions? Aish, here are some ideas: What are the different philosophies of supply chain management? How does supply chain management help businesses to function more efficiently? What is the future of E-commerce? Dear Virginia, Can you help me for select the research topic of undergraduate level.

Here are a couple: How will IT and Big Data become important in biology or medicine? What is the top problem in creating useful artificial intelligence? Is it possible to use Internet Of Things for disease control surveillance system? How can parents best monitor their children's use of media?

How much online time should children have each day? What are the risks of using the Internet that parents need to know? Can someone help me narrow it down? I came up with How are technologies changing the way people interact with government entities. Are cellphones and computers enabling us to communicate effectively with government. A variety of topics could be done on concrete civil engineering. Here are a few: What is the best way to make concrete earthquake safe?


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Introduction to Research for Essay Writing from University of California, Irvine. Course 4: Introduction to Research for Essay Writing This is the last course in the Academic Writing specialization before the capstone project. By the end of this.

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May 14,  · How to Write a Research Essay. Research essays are extremely common assignments in high school, college, and graduate school, and are not unheard of in middle school. If you are a student, chances are you will sooner or later be faced with 95%(29).

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Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide. The first stage of writing an essay can often be the trickiest. Here's our guide to carrying out great research for first-class essays.

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Writing your Reflective Essay on Research Strategies. Writing a reflective essay on the research process is an opportunity for you to think back on what you. have learned, to recognize your achievements and to identify the challenges that you faced. This free Education essay on Research methods is perfect for Education students to use as an example.